Mesopotamia and Egypt were societies that developed at roughly the same time period and grew along some mighty rivers. Politically, the Mesopotamian and Egyptian kings were different. Also, socially, they were different in their attitudes towards religion, with Mesopotamians lacking the relationship with gods and goddesses and Egyptian people having a relationship with their gods. However, they were similar with the negative treatment of the women in their society. Unlike Mesopotamia, the Egyptians discovered unity early in history. They saw unification of smaller units into single state by Menes, supposedly the first ruler. The king had to maintain ma’ta, which was to divinely authorized order of the universe. Egypt’s political system reflected importance of religion. The pharaoh, also known as king, was the heart of the government but not only just a king, but he was a god also. The “Old Kingdom” which lasted from 2100-2500 B.C.E, was the strongest and most powerful of all kingdoms. That is because only a few outsiders tried to challenge the power, economic prosperity and general rule. Their will as to what to do was the law. This is also the time when the first pyramids for tombs for the pharaohs, which was between 2600-2100 B.C.E. In the “Middle Kingdom” (2100-1650 B.C.E) Egyptians started to trade with their neighbors extensively and developed small, middle class officials and merchants. Kings were represented by officials, which were landed nobility that were specialized trained in writing and laws. Governors were appointed for different regions and responsible for supervising irrigation and public works. This good peace was ended when the Hysos (modern day Turkey) invaded Egypt. In the “New Kingdom” (1550-700 B.C.E) Hysos ruled for that century between the Middle and New Kingdom. After that ruling, they were defeated by the Prince from Thebes. The Hysosians married Egyptians when they were ruling but were seen as...
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