Mental Retardation

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SPED 2: Introduction to Special Education
Mental Retardation(intellectual disability)
Complex developmental disability
It refers to substantial limitation in present functioning. It is characterized by significantly sub-average intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with related limitations in two or more of the following adaptive skills area.

Substantial limitation in present functioning
* Means that the person has difficulty in performing everyday activities. Significantly sub-average intellectual functioning
* Means that the person has significantly below average intelligence. Related limitations in the adaptive skills area:
Communications Self-direction
Self-careHealth and safety
Home livingFunctional academics
Social skillsLeisure and work
Community use

Other meaning of Mental Retardation
* is a condition in which people have below average intelligence that limits their ability to function normally. * is a generalized disorder appearing before adulthood, characterized by significantly impaired cognitive functioning and deficits in two or more adaptive behavior. * is a condition of substantial limitations in intellectual functioning that impacts performance in daily life.

Signs and symptoms
The signs and symptoms of mental retardation are all behavioral. Most people with mental retardation do not look like they have any type of intellectual disability, especially if the disability is caused by environmental factors such as malnutrition or lead poisoning. The so-called "typical appearance" ascribed to people with mental retardation is only present in a minority of cases, all of which involve syndromic mental retardation. Children with mental retardation may learn to sit up, to crawl, or to walk later than other children, or they may learn to talk later. Both adults and children with mental retardation may also exhibit some or all of the following characteristics. * Delays in oral language development

* Deficits in memory skills
* Difficulty learning social rules
* Difficulty with problem solving skills
* Delays in the development of adaptive behaviors such as self-help or self-care skills * Lack of social inhibitors
Causes of Mental Retardation

Postnatal  (in infancy and childhood) |  | Brain infections such as tuberculosis, Japanese  encephalitis, and bacterial meningitis
Head injury*
Chronic lead exposure*
Severe and prolonged malnutrition*
Gross understimulation*|

Classification of Intellectual Disability
(mental retardation)
Mild Intellectual Disability:
* 55 to 70 IQ ranges
* Affected children are able to speak and to learn some social skills. * They can usually be expected to care for themselves as adults, with some guidance. * Can often acquire academic skills up to the 6th grade level. They can become fairly self-sufficient and in some cases live independently, with community and social support

Moderate Intellectual Disability:

* 40-54 IQ ranges
* Usually have poor social skills. They will be able to achieve in school to about the elementary school level. Because their early motor milestones are usually attained in the normal range, children at this IQ level and above tend to be diagnosed around the preschool period. However, language development and achievement of activities of daily living and social skills are often delayed. * They will generally need complete supervision as an adult, often in a group home setting. They may be capable of unskilled occupations in a supported-employment setting.

Severe Intellectual Disability:

* 25-39 IQ ranges
* are often diagnosed very early because acquisition of even the earliest motor milestones are delayed. * Affected children will be able to learn a few words and a few self-help skills, but will need a protected environment as an adult. A living situation in a group home with increased support will generally be possible....
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