The medical terms to be translated are selected from three articles. Two articles deal with the posttraumatic stress disorder, a kind of mental disease and the other article is about the immune response in transplantation. Medical terms differ from that in daily use, and the same word can have different meanings within various contexts. In addition, many medical terms have roots and affixes which are mostly borrowed from Greek and Latin language, and as a result an analysis of the roots, prefixes and suffixes is necessary in order to translate the terms acutely and succinctly. Some terms can be transliterated into Chinese language while some need to be paraphrased into Chinese according to the context. The translation of medical terms should not only be accurate, but should also be concise, easy to understand and avoid being ambiguous.
Article One: Blockade of Lymphocyte Chemotaxis in Visceral Graft-versus-Host Disease
1. Graft-versus-host Disease: Graft means any transplanted or implanted organ or tissue in English, in Chinese language, graft can be translated as “移植器官”. The term “versus” in English means the situation in which two sides are against each other. In Chinese language, the term refers to “敌对”, but the term “敌对” is usually used in military area and it is not concise for the translation of “versus” in medical field. Comparatively, the term “抗” in Chinese is more suitable for the translation of “versus” as it is concise and it can reflect the condition in which one part is resistant toward another. “Host” means the body which accepts the transplantation. In Chinese, the character “宿主” means the body on which another animal or plant lives (cf. Oxford Advanced Learner’s English-Chinese Dictionary:854). In medical field, “宿主” can be referred to the body to which the organ or tissue is attached. Therefore, the disease Graft-versus-host can be translated as “移植器官抗宿主病”, a disease in which the transplanted organ is antagonistic towards the body which accepts the implantation and it can lead to the destruction of the host body. 2. Antigen-presenting cells: The prefix “anti” means being against and antagonistic. The suffix “–gen” refers to “that which generate”. Therefore, the term “antigen” can be literally translated as “抗原”, a kind of substance that can generate immune response. “Presenting” refers to “clinging to a cell surface for detection of other molecules”. In biological process, the antigen-presenting cell can process the antigen cells by taking and presenting them to the lymphocyte cells. In Chinese language, the term “识别” refers to recognizing and detecting specific substance and the term “呈递” means “taking” and “bringing”. Consequently, the term “antigen-presenting cell” can be translated into “抗原识别呈递细胞” in Chinese language. 3. Lymphocyte recruitment: Lymphocyte is a kind of leukocyte cell and it is a product of lymphoid tissue, participating in immune activities. In Chinese language, the term “lymphocyte” is transliterated as “淋巴细胞的”, which refers to pertaining to the lymphocyte. The term “recruitment” refers to the gradual increase and in Chinese language, “增生” means a growth and proliferation in number. Therefore, the term can be translated as “淋巴细胞增生”. 4. Secondary Graft Losses: “Secondary” generally refers to the second rank in dictionary, but in the context, the term means being derived from what is original and primary. The term “secondary” should be translated as “继发性的” which means pertaining to progressive. The terms “losses” means dysfunction and destruction of the transplanted graft and in the context, and it can be translated as “坏死症” in Chinese. Consequently, the term “secondary graft losses” translated into Chinese is “继发性移植物坏死症”. 5. Myeloproliferative Disorder: The root “myelo” refers to bone marrow and the term “proliferative” means rapid growth and increase. The term means an abnormal increase of marrow. Thus “myelo” can be translated as “骨髓” in Chinese language. The...
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