Labor and birth is physically and emotionally straining for a woman. As the patient’s body undergoes physical changes to help the fetus pass through the cervix, she may also feel discomfort, pain, panic irritability, and loss of control. Providing measures to promote relaxation is key during labor and breath.
* FETAL PRESENTATION - is the relationship of the fetus to the rvix. It can be assessed through vaginal examination (IE), abdominal inspection and palpation Leopold’s maneuver), sonography, or auscultation of the FHT. By knowing the fetal presention, you can anticipate which part of the fetus will first pass through the cervix during delivery. a. Fetal Attitude (degree of flexion) is the relationship of the fetal body parts to one another. b. Fetal Lie (longitudinal, transverse, oblique) – is the relationship of the fetal spine to the maternal spine. c. Fetal Position – is the relationship of the fetal body parts to a specific quadrant of the mother’s pelvis. Its important to define fetal position because it influence the progression of labor and whether surgical intervention is needed. TYPES OF FETAL PRESENTATION:
* CEPHALIC: when the fetus is in cephalic presentation, the head is the first part to contact the cervix and expel from the uterus during delivery. * BREECH: labor is prolonged with breech presentation beecse of ineffective cervical dilation caused by decreased pressure on the cervix and delayed descent of thefetus. * SHOULDER: in this presentation, the shoulder, iliac crest, hand or elbow is the presenting part. The fetus is in transverse lie. * COMPOUND: the difficulty of birth because an extremity presents with the major presenting part.
* ENGAGEMENT: is when the presenting part of the fetus passes into the pelvis to the point where, in cephalic presentation, the biparietal diameter of the fetal head is at the level of the mid-pelvis or at the level of the ischial spine....