Mathematics in India-Past, Present and Future

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MATHEMATICS IN INDIA-
PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE

Let’s begin with sloka 1.4 of “Sulba sutra”
“Deerkha chaturasrasya akshnayarajju:
Paarshwamaanee thiryangmaaneecha prithak bhoopathe
Kurutha: thadupayam karothee”
(The area of square of diagonal of a rectangle is the sum of the area of squares of its adjacent and opposite sides.) Then let’s look at the famous Pythagoras theorem:
“The square on the hypotenuse of a right angled triangle is equal to the sum of squares of its sides” The Sulba sutra was written on 12th century B.C. but the Pythagoras theorem was introduced on 6th century B.C, 600 years after Sulba sutra. That is, most of the works, theorems and concepts of mathematics existed in India on its own form even before in other countries. Let’s look at the glorious history of mathematics in India, its present state, and to what it is pointed. Zero, the concept that laid foundation for the decimal system, the concept which made the beginning of all other mathematical ideas was originated in India. The invention of zero and decimal system was the reason for development of mathematics in India. The fingerprints of Indian intelligence have fallen on the stage of mathematical operations too. Direct and inverse methods for addition and subtraction, 6 methods for multiplication etc were mentioned in ancient texts of India. The method of division was known to Indians before 4th century B.C. Aryabhata explains method for finding square and cube roots in just two sloka. In Bhaskaracharya’s Leelavati, 8 mathematical operations, treatment with zero etc are described. By using the mathematical ideas that formed on the subcontinent, innovations were made in the field of geometry, arithmetic, astronomy etc. in ancient periods, mathematics was used for the purposes like agriculture, worship, division of land and measurement of time. The major achievements in the field of arithmetic were by Bhaskara II....
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