Marketing Histories Essay
Marketing has become a fundamental part of our society in recent years, maturing into an integral part of any organisations to help maximise sales and profits. Its first major impact on companies and businesses began to take hold in post world war U.S.A, when consumers wanted to make up ‘for lost time’ from the depressive and stagnant years of war (Benton, 1987, OM&P) marketing presented an opportunity to finally make this happen. As time progressed marketing took a significant shift to a more customer-based approach, making them the very much the centerpiece. This evolution stemmed from mass production of products from homogeneous to heterogeneous and the vast array of competition that had been released to the masses. Relationship marketing was a much-needed asset to help find a way to differentiate between companies and organisations, which still very much holds a presence today and no doubt will in the future, too.
As marketers became savvier and more in touch with the commercial market, they realised that they could design a concept that would help maximize sales for a company, and consequently make as much profit for them as possible. This ‘concept’ was to be known as the marketing mix paradigm, and it originally consisted of 12 different variables which were proposed by Borden in 1954, these were: product, price branding, distribution, personal selling, advertising, promotions, packaging, display, servicing, physical handling, fact finding and analysis. As time progressed, this 12 piece concept was then shifted to a more concise ‘4Ps’ paradigm by McCarthy in the 1960’s, which focused on four central categories of product, price, place and promotion. (p.10, 100 years of marketing:chapter 1)This shift in perspective aimed to appeal to a more marketing management approach and was, as McCarthy described, to be used as an ideal ‘starting point from which to construct a marketing strategy.’ (Gronoos, 1994a, 1994b) At this point in time there was a specific urge from organizations to abide to a formulae that ensured that marketing would effectively entice consumers, every time. (OM&P, 1998) This was due to production levels having to maintain the level of output by organisations, the 4p’s allowed a firm grounding to initiate this plan and In America this adopted marketing approach was wholly successful. From high levels of ‘consumer trust, effective mass marketing, growing prosperity, homogeneous products and dominant manufacturers’ (O’Driscall and Murray , 1998) marketing in Post War U.S.A provided the perfect fit for the 4P formulae, initiating a mass increase in the consumption of standardized goods. (OM&P, 1998)
Despite the success with this formulae in U.S.A, this approach was not yet universally applicable, with the European markets still well behind the leaps forward of post war U.S.A, it was not until a decade late until parallels could be seen between the two continents. Often deemed the ‘golden age of marketing’ this period from 1950 – 1970 saw the publics demand and want for new goods and services at an all time high. The release of television, allowing marketers to advertise their products to the masses; was without doubt a main contributor to this ‘golden-era.’ Communication on this scale was extremely powerful and helped double consumer spending in a small amount of time. (J. Egan, 2008, p.10)
As years went by, post 1970’s saw the marketing mix paradigm quickly becoming dated, as consumers called for marketing that emphasised ‘interactivity, connectivity and creativity", (Cova, 1996, p20) The saturation of products on a global scale and the vast choice that consumers were now given contributed to this want for change, and the fact that the 4p’s approach was too restrictive for business to business and services marketing (J. Egan, 2008 p. 28) In reply to this, relationship marketing (RM) was born. RM incorporated an approach to fit marketing around the...
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