Market Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning
Market Segmentation Concept :
Market segmentation is a concept in economics and marketing. A market segment is a sub-set of a market made up of people or organizations with one or more characteristics that cause them to demand similar product and/or services based on qualities of those products such as price or function. A true market segment meets all of the following criteria: it is distinct from other segments (different segments have different needs), it is homogeneous within the segment (exhibits common needs); it responds similarly to a market stimulus, and it can be reached by a market intervention. The term is also used when consumers with identical product and/or service needs are divided up into groups so they can be charged different amounts. These can broadly be viewed as 'positive' and 'negative' applications of the same idea, splitting up the market into smaller groups. Examples:
Demographic segmentation consists of dividing the market into groups based on variables such as age, gender family size, income, occupation, education, religion, race and nationality.As you might expect, demographic segmentation variables are amongst the most popular bases for segmenting customer groups.This is partly because customer wants are closely linked to variables such as income and age. Also, for practical reasons, there is often much more data available to help with the demographic segmentation process. The main demographic segmentation variables are summarised below: Age : Consumer needs and wants change with age although they may still wish to consumer the same types of product. So Marketers design, package and promote products differently to meet the wants of different age groups. Good examples include the marketing of toothpaste (contrast the branding of toothpaste for children and adults) and toys (with many age-based segments). Life-cycle stage : A consumer stage in the life-cycle is an important variable - particularly in markets such as leisure and tourism. For example, contrast the product and promotional approach of Club 18-30 holidays with the slightly more refined and sedate approach adopted by Saga Holidays. Gender : Gender segmentation is widely used in consumer marketing. The best examples include clothing, hairdressing, magazines and toiletries and cosmetics. Income : Another popular basis for segmentation. Many companies target affluent consumers with luxury goods and convenience services. Good examples include Coutts bank; Moet & Chandon champagne and Elegant Resorts - an up-market travel company. By contrast, many companies focus on marketing products that appeal directly to consumers with relatively low incomes. Examples include Aldi (a discount food retailer), Airtours holidays, and discount clothing retailers such as TK Maxx. Social class : Many Marketers believe that a consumers "perceived" social class influences their preferences for cars, clothes, home furnishings, leisure activities and other products & services. There is a clear link here with income-based segmentation. Lifestyle : Marketers are increasingly interested in the effect of consumer "lifestyles" on demand. Unfortunately, there are many different lifestyle categorisation systems, many of them designed by advertising and marketing agencies as a way of winning new marketing clients and campaigns! Geographic segmentation
Geographic segmentation tries to divide markets into different geographical units: these units include: • Regions: e.g. in the UK these might be England, Scotland, Wales Northern Ireland or (at a more detailed level) counties or major metropolitan areas • Countries: perhaps categorised by size, development or membership of geographic region • City / Town size: e.g. population within ranges or above a certain level • Population density: e.g. urban, suburban, rural, semi-rural • Climate: e.g. Northern,...
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