Marine Actinomycetes from Mangrove Soil in Lianga Bay, Philippines: Potential Source of Antibiotic Against Methicillin-Resistantstaphylococcus Aureus (Mrsa)

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CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Mangrove swamps are forested intertidal ecosystems that occupy sediment-rich sheltered tropical coastal environments. By trapping and stabilizing fine sediments, mangroves control the quality of marine coastal waters. Aside from maintaining coastal food webs and populations of animals, mangroves have an important role in pollution control through their absorptive capacity for organic pollutants and nutrients, and they play an important role in storm protection and coastal stabilization.

In the Philippines, our mangroves remain to be one of the less explored environments in terms of microbial biodiversity. As a unique intertidal ecosystem, mangroves can be important sources of novel microorganisms and products. The Actinomycetes on the other hand, are well known secondary metabolite producers and hence of high pharmacological and commercial interest.

Isolation of Actinomycetes from SedimentMethicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) frequently causes nosocomial infections, is often resistant to most of the antibiotics and is one of the greatest challenges for modern antimicrobial therapy, particularly since the emergence of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) with intermediate susceptibility to glycopeptides. (Blanc et al.) In the Philippines, it has reported on the prevalence of oxacillin-resistance of S. aureus strains as 18%, 24%, 18%, and 18% in the years 1999 to 2002, respectively.13-15In a 9-month study (August 2000-May 2001) of hospital-acquired S. aureus, reported an 11.7% resistance rate for MRSA, (Atilano et al.). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was responsible for an estimated 94,000 life-threatening infections and 18,650 deaths in 2005, Based on their findings, they estimated that for every 100,000 people living in the U.S. there were 32 cases of invasive MRSA in 2005. An estimated 128 cases occurred for every 100,000 people aged 65 and over, (Boyles &, 2007). MRSA bacteria are usually spread through skin-to-skin contact with someone who has an MRSA infection or who is colonised by the bacteria. Colonised means bacteria are present on your body but do not cause any symptoms. The bacteria can also spread through contact with towels, sheets, clothes, dressings or other objects that have been used by a person who is infected by MRSA, (NHS, 2011). Because Methecillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus adapts so easily and because rapid deaths to the hospital it becomes challenging to the increasing number of antibiotics, new antibiotics are being developed and tested to help battle MRSA to help out patients and hospital to battle MRSA.

Thus, the present study aims to study to is to find Bioactive Secondary Metabolite from Marine Actinomycete isolates from Mangrove soil and partially characterized the Bioactive Secondary Metabolites using TLC & UV absorbance This research project aims to investigate the antibiotic production potential of mangrove microbial populations, with focus on Actinomycetes, in soil samples from Lianga Bay, Surigao del Sur, Philippines. It intends to find cultivable antibiotic-producing Actinomycetes against Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

Objectives of the Study
The objective of the study is to find Bioactive Secondary Metabolite from Marine Actinomycete isolates from Mangrove soil and partially characterized the Bioactive Secondary Metabolites using TLC & UV absorbance Specifically it intends to:

1. Isolate Marine Actinomycetes from Mangrove soil;
2. Isolate Marine Actinomycetes against MRSA using Agar plug Assay; 3. Conduct Liquid Assay using Cylinder Cup Assay;
4. Partially characterized the Bioactive Secondary Metabolites using TLC & UV Absorbance Test Statement of the Problem
This study was conducted to investigate the presence of antimicrobial agents in the isolated Philippine Actinomycetes against MRSA. In addition, the study was carried out to...
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