Maranao is the term used for the people of Lanao, a predominantly Muslim region in the Philippines island of Mindanao. They are famous for their artwork, sophisticated weaving, wood and metal craft, and their epic literature. The word Maranao, also spelled Maranaw, means "People of the Lake," referring to the indigenous people who inhabited the lands around Lake Lanao whose principal city is Marawi. The Maranaos are part of the thirteen Moro ethnic groups, who constitute the sixth largest Filipino ethnic group. The Maranao, were the first inhabitants of the shores of Lake Lanao and they still inhabit this region. Almost all Maranaos are Muslims, but a few groups residing in the hills around Lake Lanao are commited to a version of Islam that is fused with traces of pre-Islamic traditions. The expansion of Islam in Mindanao created a differentiation between the native peoples, those who became Muslim were named "Moros" by the Spaniards and those who did not are called today "Lumads". Together with the Illanun and Maguindanao, the Maranao are one of three indigenous Muslim groups native to the island of Mindanao in the southwestern part of the Philippines; this tribal group shares in a generalized Southeast Asian culture but has its own cultural identity. The Maranao, is adapting to modern society without completely losing their ethnic identity and like any other indigenous group they try to face up or confront the modernizing influences of the present. They strive to live in their own domain as their ancestors have lived for nearly five thousand years as they struggle to return to their culture, tradition and practices.
The concepts cited herein revolve around the legal basis that school administrators, teachers and staff must be sensitive to cultural and social diversity among families and recognize that all parents, custodial and non-custodial, are vested with certain rights and responsibilities for the welfare of their children by virtue of their role and according to law (Dr. Doris D. Tulio, 2008.) There is a big difference between Maranaos residing today in Zone 10, Barra, Opol, Misamis Oriental with the Maranaos residing in Marawi. Maranaos in Zone 10, Barra, Opol, Misamis Oriental are more open with the environment of the society they are living with today as compared to Maranaos residing in Marawi due to the fact that they are closer to their religious hometown (Dr. Abdullah Madale, 2011). Maranaos segmentalize with other people especially Christians in terms of their relationship, behavior, attitudes like friendliness, manner of dressing, suspicious feelings, etc. Somehow, the environment influences them and affects or impacts them. Moreover, many Maranao women residing in Zone 10, Barra, Opol, Misamis Oriental, feel the safety of their homes by walking around even late at night. However, despite being open to changes, they remain as Maranaos and still holding to their traditions and mores. To illustrate the concepts of the study, a schematic diagram is drawn on the next page. The box on the left side is the independent variable. It contains the extent of involvement of Maranao parents in their children’s welfare as to school related activities and includes the fathers only, mothers only, both parents, child and others. The box on the right side is the dependent variable. It contains the school related activities and includes academic activities, religious activities, non - academic activities and extra-curricular activities. Below the box of the independent variable is the table of intervening variables. It contains the demographic factors like age as of last birthday, age of marriage, number of years married, highest educational attainment, occupation, income per month, total number of children and number of school children.
Areas of school – related activities