Ib History Notes
The Early Years
1911 10 October Double Tenth Uprising at Wuchang –ends the Qing Dynasty 1912 Sun Yat-sen becomes President of the Republic of China Three Principles of the People -Nationalism (rid china of Western invaders) -Livelihood and the People’s Welfare, Socialism (government control of capital) -Representative Government, Democracy (Chinese collectivism) 1913 14 February Yuan Shikai becomes President because Sun was not able to win the support of the military. He began to campaign against the GMD using bribes and double agents. When this caused Sun Yat-sen to escape to Japan, Yuan completed his government take-over. Yuan's subsequent reorganization of the provincial governments after his victory set the precedent for warlords by designating an army to each provincial governor. 1915 Yuan agrees to most of Japan's 21 Demands, and protests are made against his leadership. He takes out massive loans to support his government. He becomes self-proclaimed "Emperor", thus losing of his power base, as the military felt he would be less dependent on them after his assumption of the monarchy. 1919 May 4th Movement Violent protest in reaction to the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. China had entered the war in 1917, anticipating the recovery of the province of Shangdon that Germany had controlled. However, the land went to the Japanese, who had entered the war in 1914. May 4th started the movement towards a new culture, and a mass rejection of all foreigners, giving a more directed purpose to the revolutionaries. Mao participated by starting a newspaper The Xiang River Review, notable for his avocation of anarchy and denunciation of violent revolution: "we will not pursue that ineffectual 'revolution of blood.'" Idea for CCP Started in Moscow, under the hidden, but active involvement of the Comintern until 1949. 1920 April CCP formed Votinsky goes to China to set up the CCP 1921 Mao becomes the local CCP Party boss in Hunan 1922 Mao is dropped from the 2nd Congress, but he is kept on in the party because of his excellent military skills. 1923 Under encouragement from the Comintern and the CCP, Mao became a member of the GMD. Members of the CCP were instructed by the Comintern to work with the GMD to bring China under a single nationalist government - First United Front. 1925 Sun Yat-sen dies of cancer. Chiang Kai-shek emerges as leader of the GMD. 1926 Northern Expedition Under the leadership of Chiang, United Front forces overthrow many provincial warlords. Unites more than half of China under GMD. 1927 Chiang Kai-shek marries the sister of Sun's wife. (He now appears to be the 'true hier' of Yat-sen although Sun Yat-sen's widow sides with the CCP. Also, Chaing's wife was educated in America –this will put the GMD in good favour with the US) Right-wing elements of the GMD led by Chiang conspire with provincial warlord allies to purge left-wing leaders. End of the First United Front and the beginning of a bitter rivalry between the CCP and the GMD. 1928 Hedged in by enemy forces in the mountains, Mao is largely cut off from CCP and Comintern. In the mountains, Mao experiments with collective agriculture and builds a peasant army trained in guerrilla tactics. 1929 Mao joins other CCP leaders to establish the Jiangxi Soviet. 1931 The GMD launch the White Terror. Japanese invasion of Manchuria
The Rise of Mao
1934 Long March to Yan'an Jiangxi Soviet is abandoned. Although Mao was not one of the initial organizers of the march, he takes command of the Communist forces after the first...