China: Nationalism and Communist Revolution

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History 251: China: Nationalism and Communist Revolution CHRONOLOGY Section II of course 1895-98 Looting of China. Division into “spheres of influence” of foreign powers. 1898 The Hundred Days of Reform. 1900 Boxer Rebellion. 1905 SUN YAT-SEN creates the Nationalist Party TONGMENGHUI (later became the GUOMINDANG). 1911-12 Revolution overthrows Manchu dynasty and establishes the Chinese Republic. 1913 The warlord YUAN SHIKAI comes to power, outlawing the Guomindang. 1916-c.1927 Politics in China dominated by various regional WARLORDS. 1919 May 4th student demonstration protesting against the Versailles Conference. Also indicative of a new cultural movement among sections of the Chinese intelligentsia. Section III of course 1921 Formation of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). The Communist International (COMINTERN) plays important role. 1924-1927 First United Front between the Guomindang, (headed by CHIANG KAI-SHEK after 1926) and the CCP. 1927-1934 Exile and valuable practical experience for Chinese communists such as Mao Zedong in rural areas, for example with the formation of the JIANGXI Soviet . 1934-35 LONG MARCH and a new base in North-West China, in YANAN. 1937-46 Second United Front between the CCP and the Guomindang. Jockeying for position between the two even as they “cooperate” against the Japanese invasion. 1946-49 Civil War and Communist victory. 1949 Formation of the People’s Republic of China. THEMES Section II of course Nationalism in China: Anti-Manchu nationalism: the result of Manchu oppression of other nationalities. Manchu state-sponsored nationalism: self-strengthening, modern government systems, encouragement of Chinese industry. Popular nationalism: Boxers opposed foreign domination resulting in unemployment, increased financial and social demands of government in crisis Presence of predatory foreign powers: western as well as Japanese oppression contribute to growth of nationalism. Cultural nationalism: May 4th Movement, revising...
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