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THE SPIRALITY OF THE SINGLE JERSEY FABRICS AND ITS EFFECT
ON THE GARMENTS
F. CEKEN
Dokuz Eylul University Engineering Fac. Textile Eng. Department Bornova-Izmir/TURKEY 1. Introduction
The single jersey knitted structures, used widely in knitted garments, cause some problems, because of their unbalanced structures. The most important problem of the single jersey structure is fabric spirality, which affects all the fabric and creates big problems at the clothing step. It affects the garment as the displacements of the side seams and this causes an important quality problem. This problem is prevented during the finishing and dyeing processes by different methods, however these preventions are temporary and after washing processes, on the clothes the displacement of side seam is occurred. In this study previous studies are examined. Different angles of spirality were measured at different tightness factors on the fabrics, knitted by using open-end and ring yarns. After that, for investigating the effects of the spirality on the garments, t-shirts are produced and after washing processes, the displacements of side seams are measured. 2. Literature

Ba\u015fer and \u00c7eken [1] produced knitted fabrics on hand knitting machines to research the effects of yarn properties on fabric spirality by using acrylic and cotton yarns with two different yarn counts and four different twist factors at different tightness factors. As a result the most important factor that affects the fabric spirality on acrylic and cotton knitted fabrics is observed as twist liveliness. It is observed that the angle of spirality is decreasing on knitted fabrics, when yarns are fixed with vapor. At the same time by using two-ply yarns, the spirality is prevented, because the twist direction of the two-ply yarn is opposite to the twist of one-ply yarn. On the other hand using fine yarns and slack fabrics, it is observed that on knitted fabrics the angle of spirality is very high. Araujo and Smith [2] investigated the spirality on single jersey fabrics, by using Cotton/Polyester yarns with different yarn counts and twist factors, which are produced with different spinning techniques. It is observed that the twist liveliness of %100 cotton is higher than the 50/50 Co/PES knitted fabrics. They observed that, 50/50 Ring Co/PES yarns have higher twist factor than the % 100 Cotton yarns, for this reason the blended yarns have lower twist liveliness. 50/50 Co/PES yarns produced with open-end technique and air jet spun technique have lower twist factor than the % 100 Cotton yarns, so the fabrics with blended yarns have lower twist liveliness. In friction spinning %100 Cotton yarns\u2019 twist factor reaches its maximum value. Related with the spinning techniques, the angles of spirality from the biggest to the smallest values in %100 Co knitted fabrics are observed in friction spinning, ring, open-end and air jet spinning techniques respectively. The angles of spirality in 50/50 Co/PES knitted fabrics are observed as the smallest in air jet end open-end spinning techniques. Tao, Dhingra, Chan and Abbas [3] are investigated the spirality on single jersey fabrics. They used ring yarns with four different yarn counts and four different twist factors. Before knitting processes, they fixed yarn for 30 minutes with vapor. They observed a linear relation between the spirality and the twist factor. The fabrics which are knitted with high twisted yarns have great angles of spirality. At the same time they have high correlation coefficients between the spirality and the tightness factors. At different twist factors, the angles of spirality are getting lower when the tightness factor is getting higher. After wet relaxation state, the angles of spirality are increased, after washing and drying state the angles of spirality are increased more than the wet relaxation state. 3. Material and Method

3.1 Material
The properties of 30 Ne Open-end and ring cotton...
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