It was Harold Koontz who introduced the concept of Management Theory Jungle. 'Management Theory Jungle' was made in an environment where the development of management theory had escalated over a period of two decades. This has resulted to confusion and conflict which many theories have entangled in it. As such, it is seen as a jungle.
Koontz defined the management theory jungle by identifying and classifying major management theory. Six schools of thoughts were identified. They included the management process, empirical, human behavior, social system, decision theory and the mathematical school. He said that each school had something to offer to management theory but suggested one should not confuse content with tools. For example, the field of human behavior should not be judged the equivalent of the field of management, nor should a focus on decision making or mathematics be considered as encompassing the entire area of analysis. Therefore, each of these school would provide insight and methods to aid manager in performing task, hence were tools not school.
Problems occurred when there is a jungle of confusing and conflicting theories. Semantics jungle refers to the definitions of certain words or terms in maintenance. There is a lack of universal recognized definitions in maintenance. Problems in defining management as a body of knowledge which led leads to entanglement as theories in various schools compete to fill the body of knowledge. The misunderstanding of principles through trying to disprove an entire framework when one principle was violated in practice. And lastly, the unwillingness of management theorist to understand each other.