Quality cannot be ignored; every purchasing decision is based on price and quality What is Quality?
It’s the ability of a product or service to consistently meet or exceed customer expectations.
Slogans related to quality:
* Talk is cheap but recalls are not.
* There is nothing is more frustrating than working hard and then knowing that what you did, didn’t work out. * People want to do good job, and we have to enable them. To meet or exceed customer expectations we should understand it, customer expectations is being divided into eight dimensions customer uses to judge quality: Product Quality dimensions: * Performance * Aesthetics * Special features * Conformance * Reliability * Durability * Perceived quality * Serviceability| Service quality dimensions: * Convenience * Reliability * Responsiveness * Time * Assurance * Courtesy * Tangibles * Consistency| The Determinants of Quality:
1- Quality of Design: It’s the intention of the designers to include or exclude features in a product or service.
Design decisions must take into consideration customer wants (marketing), production capabilities (operation personnel), safety & liability…… 2- Quality of conformance: the degree to which goods or services conform to intent of the designers.
Affected by equipment capabilities, the skills, the training & motivations of the workers, monitoring the process to assess conformance, corrective action & reduce the variability of the process outputs. 3- Ease of use & user instruction will help to use the product for its intended purpose such a way it will function properly and safely and also it should contains what not to do. 4-Service after delivery, product may not always perform as expected it’s important from the quality standpoint to remedy the situation and whatever to bring the product back to standard.
Responsibility for Quality
All the organization members are responsible for quality but certain areas are the key areas: * Top management
* Quality assurance
* Packing and shipping
* Marketing and sales
* Customer service
Benefits of good quality
1. Enhanced reputation for quality.
2. Ability to command premium prices.
3. Increased market share & greater customer loyalty. 4. Lower liability costs.
5. Lower production costs and higher profit.
6. Fewer complaints.
Consequences of poor quality:
1. Loss of business.
4. Cost, the earlier the problem is identified the cheaper the cost to fix it. The costs of Quality
1-Apprisal cost: cost of activities designed to ensure quality or uncover defects (costs of inspection, testing, lab equipment….) 2- Prevention cost: costs of preventing defects from occurring (fail safe….) 3- Failure cost: costs caused by defective parts or products. Internal failure: Failure discovered during production.
External failure: failure discovered after delivery to customer.
Return on quality (ROQ): An approach that evaluates the financial return of investments in quality.
Quality Management Strategies
Companies must choose from a number of quality tools and methods. They can then create a blended solution that aligns with their overall business needs and the demands of their markets. There are three common quality management strategies: Quality assurance – Quality assurance checks the quality of products and processes during production. It occurs before any items have been produced and during the production process. Rather than correcting mistakes, it aims to prevent them. In other words, it's a proactive and preventive form of quality management. Quality control – Quality control aims to ensure that produced goods and services meet the required quality standards. It occurs after the items have been produced. Quality control can also be applied to...