-is the ability of a product or service to consistently meet or exceed customer expectations. Though quality is an abstract perception, it has a quantitative measure.
Q= (P / E ) , where Q=quality, P= performance (as measured by the Manufacturer), and E = expectations (of the customer).
Total quality management
-is a management system for a customer focused organization that involves all employees in continual improvement of all aspects of the organization.
-TQM uses strategy, data, and effective communication to integrate the quality principles into the culture and activities of the organization.
-TQM is a philosophy that involves everyone in an organization in a continual effort to improve quality and achieve customer satisfaction.
Principles of TQM
1. Be Customer focused
Whatever you do for quality improvement, remember that ONLY customers determine the level of quality. Whatever you do to foster quality improvement, training employees, integrating quality into processes management, ONLY customers determine whether your efforts were worthwhile.
Customers want to get their money's worth from a product or service they purchase.
2. Ensure Total Employee Involvement
You must remove fear from work place, then empower employee... you provide the proper environment.
3. Integrated system
All employee must know the business mission and vision.
4. Strategic and systematic approach
Strategic plan must integrate quality as core component.
5. Continual Improvement
Using analytical, quality tools, and creative thinking to become more efficient and effective.
6. Fact Based Decision Making
Decision making must be ONLY on data, not personal or situational thinking.
Communication strategy, method and timeliness must be well defined.
Dimensions of TQM
❑ Performance - main characteristics of the product/service
❑ Aesthetics - appearance, feel, smell, taste
❑ Special Features - extra characteristics
❑ Conformance - how well product/service conforms to customer’s expectations
❑ Safety - Risk of injury
❑ Reliability - consistency of performance
❑ Durability -useful life of the product/service
❑ Perceived Quality - indirect evaluation of quality (e.g. reputation)
❑ Serviceability - service after sale
Examples of Quality Dimensions
|Dimension |(Product)Automobile |(Service)Auto Repair | |1. Performance |Everything works, fit &finish Ride, handling, grade |All work done, at agreed price Friendliness, | | |of materials used |courtesy, Competency, quickness | |2. Aesthetics |Interior design, soft touch |Clean work/waiting area | |3. Special features |Gauge/control placement Cellular phone, CD player |Location, call when ready | | | |Computer diagnostics | |4. Safety |Antilock brakes, airbags |Separate waiting area | |5. Reliability |Infrequency of breakdowns |Work done correctly, ready when promised | |6. Durability |Useful life in miles, resistance to rust & corrosion |Work holds up over time | |7. Perceived quality |Top-rated car |Award-winning service department | |8. Serviceability |Handling of complaints and/or requests for information |Handling of complaints |...