Management Approaches

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Table of Contents
Classical Approaches:3
Scientific Management:3
Human Relations:3
Maslow Pyramid of Needs:3
Administrative Management:4
Fayol’s Business Activities:4
Contemporary Approaches5
Quantitative Management:5
Organisational Behaviour:5
Systems Theory:5
Contingency Theory:6
Total Quality Management:6
Organisational Culture:7



“Management” (from Old French ménagement “the art of conducting, directing”, from Latin manu agere “to lead by the hand”) characterises the process of leading and directing all or part of an organization, often a business, through the deployment and manipulation of resources (human, financial, material, intellectual or intangible). …

Henri Fayol, analysed the process of management as “to forecast and plan, to organise, to command, to co-ordinate and to control.

In his comprehensive book ‘The Evolution of Management Thought’ Daniel A Wren writes: “Within the practices of the past there are lessons of history for tomorrow in a continuous stream. We occupy but one point in this stream. The purpose... is to present…the past as a prologue to the future." Classical Approaches:

Scientific Management:
F.W Taylor was the pioneer of this thought. Scientific management is the concept that by measuring the costs and efficiency of particularly production you can make decisions from the data that rearranges, reallocates, rearranges and so forth the units of production so that output is at the maximum size and operations for the lowest unit production cost in the long run. “The Principal object of management should be to secure the maximum prosperity for the employer, coupled with the maximum prosperity for each employee” (Taylor, 1947) Human Relations:

The use of social relationship between workers as the prime motivator. Mayo found that it was fundamental to understand the human factor in a work situation. The need to understand the existence and importance of a group. The key function for a manager is to encourage open communications. Mayo’s case study at the Hawthorne plant in 1927 proves his theory works. Even after all the changes he implemented during the study were reversed the workers and supervisors still worked as a group and production continued to rise. The special treatment required by experimental participation convinced workers that management had a particular interest in them. This raised morale and led to increased productivity. Maslow’s Pyramid below show a clear view on how as each need is met we can progress to the next level/ need.

Maslow Pyramid of Needs:


Max Weber (1864-1920) believed that there was 6 main elements to succcesful management. Division of labour, hierachy, selection, career orientation, formalisation and imporsanality. He believed that in order for ans organisation to be sucessful we must think of it lke a machine. While Bureaucracy proves to be an excellent framwork it can be inflexable to the evironmental changes.

Administrative Management:

Is based on personal experiences of its key promoters. It focuses on senior managers and the policy issues faced by them. Henri Fayol was a practical manager. Fayols method of management is in my opinion is one of the most popular methods used in business today. His view on management is “to forecast and plan, to organise, to command, to coordinate and to control” Fayol’s Business Activities:

Contemporary Approaches

Quantitative Management:
Is a more scientific approach to management used during World War II. Basically management make a decision based on a formal mathematical model of the problem. Organisational Behaviour:
Roots from the human relations approach. Theorist believed that the human relations approach was too simplistic and...
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