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BTEC FIRST DIPLOMA IN HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE

UNIT 7: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY FOR HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE

Assignment Title: The effect of Malfunctions on the Human Body Systems Lecturer: Madge Waite-Stewart

Assignment by: ANDREA MURRAY
Pin: BMC111223604

HEART ATTACK
A malfunction in the human body system indicates that the organs are not working properly or efficiently. There are different diseases and illnesses that can affect the cardiovascular system such as stroke, heart attack, asthma and high blood pressure. I will be outlining how a heart attack affects the cardiovascular system. This will make the heart not work properly and also weaken the organs and can even cause death. The heart beats on average 70 times a minute to push blood around the body. Like any busy muscle, the heart tissues need a good supply and flow of blood from their blood vessels, which are called the coronary arteries. A heart attack occurs over a time caused by not eating properly e.g. eating burgers/fatty foods. Also, a lack of exercise can contribute to a heart attack and fatty material that built up in the arteries make the blood flow limited. The blood flow slows down and also the amount of oxygen decreased in the blood and it will not reach the vital organs in the body. The clot, often caused by rupturing or tearing of plaque in an artery, is sometimes called a coronary thrombosis or a coronary occlusion. The clot may then block the supply of blood running through the coronary artery, triggering a heart attack. Some of the symptoms of a heart attack are:

* chest pain: the chest can feel like it is being pressed or squeezed by a heavy object, and pain can radiate from the chest to the jaw, neck, arms and back * shortness of breath
* feeling weak and/or lightheaded
* overwhelming feeling of anxiety
Some people have a heart attack without having any symptoms (a "silent" myocardial infarction). A silent MI can occur in anyone, but it is more common among people with diabetes. A heart attack is a true medical emergency. After a heart attack, quick treatment to open the blocked artery is essential to lessen the amount of damage. At the first signs of a heart attack, call for emergency treatment (usually 999). The best time to treat a heart attack is within one to two hours of the first onset of symptoms. Waiting longer increases the damage to your heart and reduces your chance of survival. Keep in mind that chest discomfort can be described in many ways. It can occur in the chest or in the arms, back, or jaw. If you have symptoms, take notice. These are all warning sign of heart disease or heart attack, seek medical care immediately.

P5
The Risk Factors of Heart Attack You Can Control:
•Smoking
•High blood pressure
•High blood cholesterol
•Overweight and obesity
•An unhealthy diet (for example, a diet high in saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, and sodium) •Lack of routine physical activity
•High blood sugar due to insulin resistance or diabetes
The Risk Factors of Heart Attack You Can’t Control:
•Age. The risk of heart disease increases for men after age 45 and for women after age 55 (or after menopause). •Family history of early heart disease. If your father or brother was diagnosed with heart disease before 55 years of age or your mother or sister was diagnosed with heart disease before 65 years of age. •Preeclampsia (pre-e-KLAMP-se-ah). This condition can develop during pregnancy. The two main signs of preeclampsia are a rise in blood pressure and excess protein in the urine.

P6
The Routine Treatment After Leaving The Hospital
Some people spend several days in hospital after a heart attack. When they leave hospital, treatment doesn't stop. Some of the ‘at home’ treatment may include daily medicines and cardiac rehabilitation (rehab). People who stuffer heart attack need to follow a diet consisting of whole grains, fresh fruit and vegetables, lean meats and a limited amount of heart...
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