Malcolm: The Life of a Man Who Changed Black America

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Bradley, David. "Malcolm: The Life of a Man Who Changed Black America." Transition,vol.56, 1992: 20-46. Dyson, Micheal Eric. "Malcolm and Martin." Transition, n.56, 1992: 48-59. Hoyt, Charles. "The Five Face of Malcolm X." Negro American Literature Forum vol.4,n.4, winter 1970: 107-112. Miller, Keith d. "Plymouth Rock Landed on Us: Malcolm X's Whiteness Theory as a basis for alternative Literacy." College Compostitionand Communication vol.56,n.2, dec.2004: 199-222. Painter, Nell Irvin. "Malcolm X across the Genres." The American Historical Review vol.98,n.2, april 1993: 432-439. Smallwood, Andrew P. "The Intellectual Creativity and Public Discourse of Malcolm X: A Precursor to the Modern Black Studies Movement." journal of black studies v.36,n.2, nov. 2005: 248-263. Weiner, Bernard. "Review." Film Quantity vol.26,n.2, winter 1972-73: 43-44.

Malcolm X and His Rise to Power
Malcolm X was one of the most dominate and influential African American leaders during the civil rights movement. Unlike Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., who accumulated his mass of followers, through non-violence that had others means of protest such as; sit-in and boycotts. But I wonder how Malcolm X accumulated a majority his congregation? Was it through his theory of the white devil, was it through encouragement of Black is beautiful and militant philosophy, or was it through his teachings of Islam. First lets begin with the preaching to the masses of African Americans Malcolm X’s theory “the idea of the white devil” Keith Miller characterizes whiteness as "relatively unchartered territory" Because for over a decade, according to Miller he gave hundreds of speeches to masses of people who generally lacked much formal education, he repeatedly and thoroughly exposed, interrogated, theorized, critiqued, and debunked whiteness as an epistemology and a rhetoric. He did so through a project that amounted to nothing less than dismantling and reconstructing African American identity. Malcolm X theorized whiteness through his radical response to an extremely popular form of oratory-the African American jeremiad. He used the Burkina theory to argue that the extreme persuasiveness and longevity of this jeremiad-from the late-18th century through the mid- 1960s-rendered it vulnerable to Malcolm X's harsh critique.' Malcolm X himself, scholars and the public have interpreted him almost exclusively in the context of the racial protests of the 1950s and 1960s. so through his preaching of the white devil, Malcolm X became an important figure that many blacks started believing in and looking up to for guidance mainly because he powerful attack a set of identifications that started in the 1700’s , From generation to generation people had little revision toward brandishing these identities that were made for them by whites for more than 150 years. Malcolm X decided to change that perception, instead of letting it continues on. As David Howard-Pitney explains, “African American jeremiads feature three basic elements: past Promise, current Failure, and eventual Fulfillment. Before the Civil War, speakers attacked slavery by offering three claims: first, founders built America on the promise of democracy; second, slavery grossly violated the promise; and third, the Declaration of Independence and the Bible articulate the promise and warrant its eventual fulfillment. By appealing to scriptural and patriotic authorities, orators invoked and reinforced American civil religion, which fuses allegiance to God and allegiance to the United States.” Malcolm reached out to the African American community by telling them that none of the elements have bee carried out in their favor, nor were they trying to. Be cause democracy was never intended for the blacks because they were considered property instead of citizens. Also, during slavery the masters of the slaves did not want them to be literate so that they wouldn’t know actually what the Bible...
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