Lom-International Transport and Sustaintable

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CO2 Emissions Analysis and Suggestions

The increasing of greenhouse gases which originated from anthropogenic activities is one of the biggest challenges we face today. It will enhance the global warming and cause many climate problems (National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory, 2008). One of the major greenhouse gases is carbon dioxide (CO2), and the major emissions of CO2 are come from the combustion of fossil fuels in power generation, transport and industrial sectors (Figure 1). In order to have a better understanding of this issue, the first step is to analyze how many CO2 we have emitted in our daily life. Figure 1: Global Anthropogenic GHG Emission by Sector (2005) [pic]

Source: Climate Analysis Indicators Tool, World Resources Institute, cited by C2ES (Centre for climate and energy solutions)

In the paragraphs below, I will outline the whole travel pattern from my home to Cardiff University, separate them by different travel modes and calculate my total CO2 emissions in two different methods. I will also give some suggestions to reduce my CO2 emission in travel at last.

• Background
1) About my luggage, I have a laptop bag, a large backpack and three baggages. As I have a lot of luggage, so I wanted to choose the most convenient way to UK. 2) About my hometown. My hometown is Jinan. It’s the capital city of Shandong province which located in the east of China. There is a large international airport in my hometown, but unfortunately, it dose not offer direct flights to UK. So I have to go to Beijing international airport. As Figure 2 shows, I changed five different kinds of transportations from my home to Cardiff University. Firstly, I chose to take a taxi to the local central train station. Then I got on the China Railway High-Speed which started from Shanghai to Beijing. After arriving in Beijing, I took the subway to the Beijing Capital international airport. I arrived at the Heathrow international airport in London after about 11 hours flying. At last, I came to the Cardiff University by a national express coach. [pic]

• CO2 Emission
Method one
How to calculate: CO2 Emission (kilogram) = M (kilograms/kilometer/person) * length of distance (kilometer). M (Multiplier): The multiplier is the amount of CO2 emitted per passenger /per kilometer for a given mode of transport. Each mode of transport has a different CO2 emission multiplier. The multipliers I chose to use were the average number of CO2 emission by different transportation. The sources were come from “2012 Guidelines to Defra / DECC’s GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting: Methodology Paper for Emission Factors” (Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, 2012). And I got the travel approximate distance by Google map. 1. Taxi CO2 Emission=5.5*0.15=0.825kg

2. China High-speed Railway CO2 Emission=435*0.0391=17.0085kg 3. Subway CO2 Emission=35.3*0.0642=2.2791kg
4. Airplane CO2 Emission=8525*0.1079=919.8475kg
5. Coach CO2 Emission=243.011*0.0281=6.8286091kg
Total CO2 Emission=0.825+17.0085+2.38275+919.8475+6.8286091≈947kg Method two
In this method, I have considered more about the realities. For example, the type of energy and the load factors. So this result is more accurate than the first method. 1. Taxi
There is no unified requirement about taxi fuel in China. Petrol and LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) is the most popular car fuel in Jinan. As Jinan Times (2012) states that in 2012 more than 90 percentages of taxis are using LNG as car fuel in Jinan. The taxis couldn’t be distinguished by their appearance, so I am not true the fuel type of the taxi I chose. The Wuhan Morning News (2005) notes that, the average consumption of LNG and petrol was 0.1 liter and 0.08 liter per kilometer. And according to the report of AEA (2012), the carbon dioxide emissions from LNP and petrol were 1.2302kg/l (kilogram per liter) and 2.3051kg/l, respectively. The distance from my home to the central train station was...
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