* “Logos” (λόϒός) – word, reason or principle. * Logic – science and art of correct reasoning.
* Evokes ORDER.
* What does Logic put into order?
All men are mammals.
All students are men.
Therefore all students are mammals.
All monkeys eat banana.
Diego eats banana.
Therefore, Diego is a monkey.
Formal Logic – concerned with pattern and structure.
Material Logic – concerned with truth or correctness.
* What logic puts in order is the way we reason out.
* Logic makes explicit the rules of reasoning.
* Inference – the process of deducing or extracting a statement. * Argument – the verbal expression of inference.
* Syllogism – the format of arguments with three statements. * Conclusion – the statement being supported.
* Premises – the statement/s that support/s the conclusion.
* ARGUMENT INFERENCE
What is the importance of studying the Arguments?
* The answer:
It is the way we support our claims to truth and validity.
* Truth and validity are the two aspects that measure the worth of an argument. What is TRUTH in Logic?
* Truth – the correspondence or equivalence of the mind to reality/object. Ex. “The Horse is white.”
* The truth value of a statement is not proven by logicians but of empirical scientists, researchers and private detectives. * Logicians only study the reasoning found on statements and not the question of their truth values. * Judgment – the “act” by which the mind affirms or denies an attribute of a subject. The simplest act of the mind in which it can attain truth. * Proposition – “statement” that affirms or denies something. It is the verbal expression of judgment. * Simple Apprehension – Apprehension (to apprehend – to grasp or to...