Literature Review on Immigration

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If there are images in this attachment, they will not be displayed.  Download the original attachment Economic impact of immigration to Canada 
Literature Review
    According to Li, (2003), “Immigration is an international issue that involves the migration of people from one country to another on a permanent basis” (Li 2003, p. 1). The major factors which would influence a person to immigrate include family planning and the role of government policies, the desire for better wages and economic stability, as well as a cleaner environment allowing for better living conditions. The act of reuniting with family may also be a driving force which encourages immigration. Moreover, one may immigrate with the wish to change one's surroundings by adapting a new life, being given the opportunity to 'start again'. In extreme cases, immigration can be a result of persecution; freedom of religion or expression are not accepted equally in all countries. As stated by Li, “immigrants today are attracted to the highly developed regions of the world because of the material affluence and economic prosperity of these regions, and because of the resulting occupational opportunities and financial rewards for individuals” (Li 2003, p. 3). In other words, one of the strongest factors that attract immigrants are the benefits of economic improvements and high living standards which are available in developed countries. Canada's current population growth already depends almost entirely on immigration. Statistics Canada has shown that, "between the year 2001 and 2006, Canada’s population grew at an average annual rate of approximately 1%, mainly owing to strong immigration” (Statistics Canada, 2008). In addition, Statistics Canada estimates that “by the year 2030, the death rate will exceed the birth rate, and with a decreasing fertility rate, immigration would be the only growth factor for Canada's population” (2008). This is a result of an aging population, in which the baby boomers are reaching retirement, and the country cannot expect to have a high fertility rate from many of its citizens. To add on, Statistics Canada further indicates, “following current trends, projections show an annual increase of 386,400 people by 2061, which is made up of 346,800 net immigrants and 39,600 net new births. Only about 10 per cent of growth will be due to new births" (Statistics Canada, 2008). Hence, immigration is the strongest factor responsible for keeping up Canada’s population due to the fact that without immigration, the natural fertility rate contributes little to the total population growth. Due to the aging population, Bain et al. (2002) state that “Canada will face difficult years during the early twenty-first century as more and more baby boomers become seniors and the dependency load increases” (Bain et al, 2002, p.169). Thus, the existence of a largely unfilled job market may cause a rise in immigration. Similarly, in the article “Why Canada needs a flood of immigrants” (2013), it is asserted that for every Canadian senior citizen, there are 4.2 working aged Canadians, but that ratio will be cut in half by the year 2031 (The Globe and Mail, 2013). With less people paying taxes, the slow growth of population, and labour shortages, immigration cannot completely cure the population problem on its own, but it may help to alleviate the symptoms. Regarding Canada’s labour market in the future, Statistics Canada (2013) estimates that from the year 2016 to 2026 , Canada’s labour force growth rate will decrease and is projected to be less than 1% (Statistics Canada, 2013). Projections from Human Resources and Skills Development Canada (HRSDC) indicate that in order to satisfy replacement demand based on retirements, deaths and emigration, there will be a need for approximately 4.4 million jobs in the coming decade (Kustec, 2013). Similarly, Biles et al. (2011) says that, "as Canada’s population ages and its fertility rate continues to drop,...
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