Literature Review

Topics: Language acquisition, Second language, English language Pages: 13 (3652 words) Published: May 2, 2013
"The most basic of all human needs is the need to understand and be understood ..."

Ralph Nichols


Problems of feeling ineffective speakers are commonly expressed by EFL learners in the process of learning English. These problems, considered to be either accuracy or fluency based, always hinder oral communication. This literature review aims to highlight the process of learning English as Foreign Language as well as highlight the inhibitors for both fluency and accuracy in this process. It brings forward to limelight the ways in which EFL students can improve these two linguistics features to enhance their English oral proficiency.


My acknowledgement and appreciation for the guidance and direction of Professor Debbie Jefferson in the preparation of this literature review. I recognize all encouragement and assistance that led me to the understanding of foreign language speaking process. I feel indebted to her for providing me with the practical background to work on this paper. Without her enlightenment, this literature review could not have been done. My appreciation also goes to my husband, Carlos Monteiro for his boundless support and patience during the challenging years I spent at Universidade de Cabo Verde. To my children, all my love!

Table of Content


Table of Content3


Definition of terms6

Foreign Language Speaking Process7

Fluency and Accuracy Inhibitors8

Developing effective EFL speakers11




Have you ever tried to take part in a conversation but could not understand a word? If never, congratulations, you are in the privileged minority. But if you are like me and the many others, how did it make you feel? Perhaps you may feel frustrated or something similar. This also happened to me in pursue of speaking effectively the English language. Unfortunately, a great majority of EFL students have gone through a very hard process to become a proficient English speaker. After years of studying, EFL students are neither fluent nor accurate English speakers.

The global crisis and the increasing of unemployment demand for those who are seeking a job, a great level of English proficiency to be able to compete with so many others. The mastering of English oral skill is sometimes the key factor that determines the winner. Therefore, students feel obliged to integrate their language skills and their specialized competence in order to get advantage in the world of “getting a job”.

In fact, the problem is that most EFL students are neither accurate nor fluent English speaker. The great majority is either fluent or accurate, while to communicate effectively it is demanding the combination between these two communication indicators. The gap between EFL’s oral proficiency and the market demands for proficient English professionals, no matter what specialization might be, has received increasing attention recently. One may question, what are then the requirements to become a proficient EFL speaker?

Many EFL blame the limited time for practicing oral communication in classrooms and the lack of conversational opportunities outside of them for their deficiency in speaking English effectively. In fact, some EFL who perform well in English classes still sometimes find themselves at a loss when interacting with native speakers in real life situation (Yang & Gai,2010). This paradox arises from the safe context of the classroom, since teacher-student and peer interactions are often restricted to basic patterns and premeditate situations or topics (Scarcella &Oxford, 1992). According to Peloghities, real-life interactions, a major factor for second language acquisition and the development of communicative...
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