Literature Review

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Globalization leads to cultural globalization and makes the impacts on local cultures. The conflicting between global culture and local cultures is a controversial topic which leads to the divergent position on cultural hybridization and homogenization. Cultural homogenization refers to the effects of globalization and aims to argue that foreign elements, particularly elements of dominant cultures, are replacing local elements. In contrast, cultural hybridization is the concept of combination between foreign and local elements. This theory asserts that local cultures are changing to some extent but never been eroded or disappeared. The issue arise here is whether local culture are being hybridized or homogenized.

There are many studies relevant to this issue because it actively affects the daily lives of people. Recent studies (The UN, 2003; Arnett, 2002; Morris, 2005) have examined the effects of globalization on local culture but they have divergent perspectives and positions. While Arnett focuses on the psychology of young people under globalization and Morris draws the history of foreign culture and global media on traditional and ethnic culture, they hold the same position that cultural hybridization is the major effect of globalization on local culture to some extent. On the other hands, the UN based on cultural homogenization and cultural imperialism theories in order to claiming that globalization are eroding local culture. Homogenization is a recent development of this theory. Cultural imperialism theory is the expansion of one dominant culture to other cultures. This definition refer to Western exported media. Cultural imperialism involves media imperialism which could be seen like the dominant Western values. Moreover, American wants to use media as a power to maintain their domination. Although the relationship between cultural homogenization and hybridization theories includes the contradiction, but three studies made important contribution the...
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