1. Appadurai, A. (1990) Disjuncture and difference in the global cultural economy, Journal Theory, Culture Society 7: 295-310 (available at NTU ejournals) Appadurai discussed the various situations and differences in the development of global cultural economy. Some cultural problems of homogenization and heterogenization are concentrated. From the perspective of homogenization, the argument of Americanization and commoditization which both show great dynamics and differences dependent on different countries. As the diversification of global cultural economy, Appadurai design an elementary framework of exploring the disjunctures to find out the term of dimensions in global culture including, technoscapes, ethnoscapes, mediascapes, finanscapes, and ideoscapes. That collection of main three dimensions of ethnoscapes, technoscapes and finanscapes is disconnected and unpredictable for their own constraints and incentives, while mediascapes and ideoscapes are built up on disjunctures. The applications of varieties object of homogenization and applied by both local economies of political and cultural are embedded in globalization. It is regarded as national sovereignty heterogeneous dialogues, fundamentalism, free enterprise, etc. where a delicate and increasing role they are played. It is concluded that the main characters of today’s culture mainly concentrate on the interact effort of whether it is same or different embedded in the culture from one to another. Which claim the successful initiation ideas of universal and particular. In this report, a view with criticism is conveyed that global cultural process have two sides where large quantities of products with altered exclusive contest of similarities and differences which are characterized by disconnections radically between different uncertain landscapes and flows, thus creating with these disjunctures. Changes will be resulted in with changes of the globalisation and development; further study will be given in the near future.
2. Sassen, S. (2008) Neither global nor national: novel assemblages of territory, authority and rights, Ethics & Global Politics, 1 (1-2), available: http://journals.sfu.ca/coaction/index.php/egp/article/viewArticle/1814/1794#FN0001 The main argument of this essay mainly concentrates on the proliferation of normative orders in the state, once it is ruled and dominated to make a single framing with normativity. In this report, Sassen uses frameworks of interdependencies among the law and power, rights and obligations, allegiance and exits, wealth and poverty. Then main focuses of the argument regardless of majority original formations, extremely unsettling arrangements which are belong to common institution which constitute of systems within and beyond national-states to solving problems with justice and order. The valence of particular purposes and utilities varied in the search from fairness to self interest. According to Sassan’s study to consider from the aspects of types of territoriality, Normative and political implications which indicate the unitary character of nation-state becoming disaggregated, sovereign authority become partial disaggregation. The latest idea indicates that processes and institutions in the globe are quite too young to apply in reality. To sum up, the implications which are normative and political are moving toward differences and diversifications in developing nation-states. Further studies on research and theorization should be focusing on three distinct subjects. Concerns on specific degree of urgent assemblages which caused by single framing of nation-states will be analyzed legibility and nirmativity in extention. In the second place, concerns should be on assemblages’ power and complex level to present the character of the element with organisational complexity, inside dynamics, and national social thickness. In the third place, subject will be focusing on the changing of single normative and alignments...
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