Main principles of development:
The main principles of development are:
* Physical development – gross and fine motor skills
* Communication development
* Social development
* Emotional development
* Intellectual development
* Moral development
Sequences of development:
Sequences of development are the order in which children develop; all children follow the same sequence of development but at different rates. For example the sequence of physical development starting from birth will start with a baby turning his/her head towards a sound - then able to hold their head up independently - sit up with support and reach for objects - start to crawl and sit up independently - begins to stand up holding onto objects and walking around holding onto things. The sequences carry on throughout life and there are different areas of development in which sequences occur.
How development and learning are interconnected:
Babies and children are learning from you all the time, a good example to explain this would be if a baby isn’t spoken to often then that baby will lack in their communicational skills in the future were as a baby who is interacted with frequently will learn words and develop communicational skills quicker than a child who isn’t. Also a child will progress in their moral skills by learning that we don’t snatch toys when they are told that it is wrong to snatch and that we wait until that child is finished playing with it then you are welcome to have it. And if you turn it round a child will learn it is right to wait for their turn with a toy instead of snatching when they are praised for doing so.
Rate of development:
All children will follow the same sequence of development but not all at the same time, all children are different. For example not all children will walk before their 1st birthday and not all children will be able to use the potty independently by the age of 2. A child may be developing at a steady rate in one area of development but may be struggling with another area, that is where adults step in and support them in furthering their development in that area. Different areas of development can affect other areas for example physical can affect emotional, a child will learn to manage their emotions by having the experience, a child will experience that if there is only one balancing beam then they will have to be patient if there are other children on it at the same time as him/her. Development is holistic means that each area of development can be affected by another area of development for example if a child can’t identify the colour red and cannot deal with the emotion of being wrong (emotional development) then his level of resilience will drop and won’t have the confidence to try new things which will affect his intellectual development.
How and why variations occur in rate and sequence of development and learning:
Thing that could cause variations in the rate and sequence of development and learning are: * Culture
* Environment and surroundings
Culture – some cultures are stricter than others which may mean the expectations of the child are higher than another child who has a different background. A child from a strict culture and who is expected highly of will most probably develop quicker than a child who is expected to do what they can and challenged when they are ready to move on.
Health – a child with asthma who cannot join in all sports and physical activities could cause a delay in their physical development.
Wealth – a child who lives in a house with a garden and a bike with no stabilisers to practice on will most probably be able to ride a bike with no stabilisers before a child who lives in a block of flats who is only able to go and practise when someone can take him out....
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