Learning Theories in Designing Training

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INTRODUCTION
In any organisational workplace, each employee plays an important role in applying their job skills to make the organisation run smoothly. Each employee is required to equip themselves with the skill of knowing how to learn as this enables them to learn other skills which could help them in their work (Blackmoore, 1996). Moreover, psychologists found out that globalisation of markets not only emphasize the requirements for responsiveness and adaptability, but also changes to the manufacturing process such as great intensification of problem solving skills of the employees (Fincham & Rhodes, 2005). The machine operators are required to learn how to deal with an emergency of the machines and come up with immediate effective solutions, and also to learn the methods of maintaining good quality control of the machines by minimizing the chances of a breakdown. Therefore, training plays a critical part towards the new as well as the existing employees in an organisation as it is an organized method of acquiring skills, rules, thoughts or attitudes and it is only through this learning that the employees could improve their performance on certain tasks given or apportioned to them. (Buckley & Capel, 2000). For instance, a personal secretary requires skills on managing the schedules of his or her superior and knowing the contacts of all the business partners of the employer while a manager requires the skills of managing the team and delegating the right task to the right person. Besides that, new employees would get to know their job criteria better by going through induction training while the existing employees will gain more personal growth and insight in new methods which could enhance their working skills, besides helping them to increase their job performance.

According to Fincham & Rhodes (2005), learning is a cognitive and physical process of each individual to gain and rise to a permanent change in knowledge and skills through study, personal experiences and reflection. However, each individual has different personalities and thus, they have different ways and abilities to process information, construct and apply the information to a new situation (Jonassen & Grabowski, 1993). Therefore, different approaches would be needed in the training process in order to get the maximum outcome towards the target of training.

In this essay, several theories of learning and the implementation to the design of training will be discussed.

CONTENT
Over the ages, psychologists have tried to find the most accurate explanation towards the process of a person acquiring knowledge, skills and attitudes. They pointed out that memories (short-term, long-term and working memory), perceptions (how people view and perceive things and events) and attention (focus towards the knowledge that is required to learn) are the key mechanisms to the process of learning. However, besides these mechanisms, the needs and motivation of each individual also helps to explain the learning process as a behaviour that will have an impact towards the learning process. People usually learn and adapt to the new environment to survive and to gain a better solution towards problems. For instance, a person who is new to sales will gain the knowledge and expertise on selling the products to the customers by learning the techniques from their experienced colleagues and they will master the skills of selling after they have been through several deals. Therefore, in explaining the techniques of learning, several theories of learning will be discussed.

Behavioural Approach
In the behavioural point of view, behavioural theorists describe the process of learning in terms of conditioning: classical and operant conditioning (Bergh & Theron, 2006). Fincham & Rhodes (2005) indicated that classical conditioning is a learning process which associates the stimuli with the reflex responses. For instance, the employee would feel upset...
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