learning theories

Topics: Learning, Psychology, Educational psychology Pages: 26 (8067 words) Published: October 25, 2013
Research Methodology
Procedures used in making systematic observations or otherwise obtaining data, evidence, or information as part of a research project or study (Note: Do not confuse with "Research Design," which refers to the planning and organization of such procedures). Types of Research Methodology:

Primary Research:-
Primary research consists of the collection of original primary data. It is often undertaken after the researcher has gained some insight into the issue by reviewing secondary research or by analyzing previously collected primary data. It can be accomplished through various methods, including questionnaires and telephone interviews in market research, or experiments and direct observations in the physical sciences, amongst others.

Secondary Research:
Secondary research (also known as desk research) involves the summary, collation and/or synthesis of existing research rather than primary research, where data is collected from, for example, research subjects or experiments. The term is widely used in medical research and in market research. The principal methodology in medical secondary research is the systematic review, commonly using meta-analytic statistical techniques, although other methods of synthesis, like realist reviews and meta-narrative[2] reviews, have been developed in recent years. Such secondary research uses the primary research of others typically in the form of research publications and reports. In a market research context, secondary research is taken to include the re-use by a second party of any data collected by a first party or parties. In archaeology and landscape history, desk research is contrasted with fieldwork.

Primary Research Vs Secondary Research
One of the major differences between the two is that primary research is conducted with the help of primary sources available where as secondary research is conducted on the basis of some data collected from someone who had got it from the sources.

Primary research is expensive to conduct since it involves primary sources. But secondary research is not much expensive as primary.

Another major difference between the two is that primary research is much more time consuming as compared to secondary research.

As a matter of fact the results found by the primary research are usually to have better quality than those from the conduct of the secondary research.

Primary research is also usually detailed and elaborated since it is supposed to be both qualitative as well as quantitative. On the other hand data pertaining to secondary research is usually not much detailed and elaborated since it involves indirect uses.

Primary research is done with a lot of hard work and dedication. On the hand secondary research is usually presented with a number of data and records. These are usually taken from books, periodicals published by governmental organizations, statistical data, annual reports and case study

ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR
Organizational behavior is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and structures have on behavior within an organization for the purpose of applying such knowledge towards improving an organization's effectiveness. It is an interdisciplinary field that includes sociology, psychology, communication, and management; and it complements the academic studies of organizational theory (which is focused on organizational and intra-organizational topics) and human resource studies (which is more applied and business-oriented). It may also be referred to as organizational studies or organizational science. The field has its roots in industrial and organizational psychology.1

Organizational studies encompass the study of organizations from multiple viewpoints, methods, and levels of analysis. For instance, one textbook divides these multiple viewpoints into three perspectives: modern, symbolic, and postmodern. Another traditional distinction, present...
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