Lean Manufacturing Principle

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Lean Manufacturing Principles Guide
Version 0.5 June 26, 2000
Maritech ASE Project #10 Technology Investment Agreement (TIA) 20000214

Develop and Implement a ‘World Class’ Manufacturing Model for U.S. Commercial and Naval Ship Construction

Deliverable 2.2
Submitted by

National Steel & Shipbuilding Co.
On behalf of the

Project Team Members
Prepared by

The University of Michigan

Revised data distribution statement: 10/26/01

Category B Data - Government Purpose Rights Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited

By Jeffrey K. Liker Thomas Lamb University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan DRAFT, Version 0.5

Table of Contents
A GUIDE TO LEAN SHIPBUILDING 1) Introduction 2) What is Lean Manufacturing a) The goal: Highest quality, lowest cost, shortest lead time b) The Toyota Production System c) Japanese Shipbuilding as lean manufacturing d) Why change to lean shipbuilding? e) The Lean Shipbuilding Model 3) Just In Time “The right part, right time, in right amount” a) Takt time—the pacemaker of the process (balanced cycle times, time windows) b) Continuous Flow (e.g., panel lines, cells in shops, process lanes, stages of construction), e.g., design blocks to come off line at common intervals so balanced on assembly line. c) Pull Systems (e.g., 40’ cassettes for webs, paletizing and kitting, ) i) Supermarket pull system ii) Sequenced Pull (longitudinal stiffners to a panel line using cassetts, level iii) Balanced Schedules (build to order vs replenish buffers vs schedule)—Big spikes in demand upstream based on build schedule for final construction. US yards build from ground up and big spikes, e.g., T-Beams. Japanese build in rings from front on back and more uniform demand, but requires accuracy control. Cross-trained team moving around the yard another solution. 4) Built In Quality a) Accuracy Control b) Labor-Machine Balancing c) In-Control Processes d) Visual Control e) Quality Control f) Worker Self-Quality Control g) Error Proofing 5) Stable Shipyard Processes a) Standard Systems b) Total Productive Maintenance c) Ergonomics and Safety (ergonomics guide) d) Elimination of Waste 6) Learning Organization a) Flexibility b) Capability c) Motivation d) Continuous Improvement 7) Value Chain Integration

© Copyright 1998, Ford Motor Company

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a) Integrated Product-Process Development (lean design guide, standard interim products) b) Customer Focus c) Supply Chain Integration (JIT) 8) Lean Implementation Guidelines

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Introduction
A shift is occurring in manufacturing around the world. Manufacturers throughout industries from automotive to aircraft to paint to computers to furniture and on and on are moving to a different system of production called Lean Manufacturing. We are not talking about adding some new techniques onto how we now build products, but actually changing the way we think about manufacturing. That can be a tough shift to make. The best way to understand lean manufacturing is to start with its roots in the Toyota Production System. Toyota started by following the basic principles set out by Henry Ford with the moving assembly line. Ford preached the importance of creating continuous material flow, standardizing processes, and eliminating waste. While Ford preached this, his company turned out millions of black Model-Ts and evolved to wasteful batch production methods of building up huge banks of work-in-process inventory throughout the value chain and pushing product onto the next stage of production. Toyota did not have this luxury, lacking space, money, and the large volumes of one type of vehicle and the it had to develop a system that flexibly responded to customer demand and was efficient at the same time. Shipbuilding is clearly different from automobiles. One does not see a ship coming off the assembly line every minute with relatively standard configurations. Ships are built to order, one or a few at a time over weeks or months and are often highly...
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