ENHANCING SCHOOL MANAGEMENT:
LEADERSHIP FOR SCHOOL MANAGERS:
A PAPER PRESENTED DURING THE SOS KINDER DOF INTERNATIONAL (EAST AFRICA) ANNUAL PRINCIPALS’ WORKSHOP IN NAIROBI 13TH – 15TH AUGUST, 2008.
MORRIS W. MULUPI, M.ED.
Leadership for School Managers
Schools are organizations established by society for the purpose of educating its children. The education process should transmit desirable values usually embodied in the curriculum. This critical goal can only be achieved through effective school leadership.
The concept of leadership was only embraced in the 1990’s and is now viewed as critical for school improvement in the 21stC. Prior to this shift, the focus was on management . Beare et. al. (1989) captures the paradigm shift thus: “outstanding leadership has invariably emerged as the key characteristic of outstanding schools. There can be no longer doubt that those seeking quality in education must ensure its presence and that the development of potential leaders must be given high priority”. This embrace of leadership was informed by the realization that effective management per se will not create effective, successful and improving schools (West- Burnham in Davies & Ellison, 2001). This is because management focuses on designing and carrying out set plans, controlling resources, getting things done and working effectively with people. Leadership on the other hand, focuses on vision, mission inspiration and motivation of people to greater levels of accomplishment (Deventer and Kruger 2005). The strength of leadership lies in its appeal to the emotions of followers to continuously raise the bar of performance. West- Burnham (in Davies & Ellison, 2001) concluded that leadership and school effectiveness are axiomatic.
By the end of the presentation the participants should be able to
1. Define the terms Leadership and School Leadership
2. Identify and discuss the various Theories of Leadership 3. Examine the characteristics of Transformational Leadership. 4. Name and describe the Styles of Leadership.
5. Differentiate between Leadership, Management and Administration. 6. State the relevance of Authority and Power in Leadership.
3.0Definitions of Leadership and School Leadership
Beare et al. (1989) state that there is no single definition of leadership. Instead there are different definitions which reflect different contexts as well as different perspectives. Some of the definitions include: • “the process of influencing activities of an organizational group toward goal setting and goal accomplishment (Stogdill in Beare et al 1989). The influence is usually based on expertise, rewards, coercion and personal qualities (charisma)” • “ability to make an activity meaningful… not to change behaviour but to give others a sense of understanding of what they are doing.” Pondy (1978). This involves clarifying the meaning of an activity in a school by posing and securing answers to questions such as:
i) What are the purposes of the school?
ii) How should we as teachers work with students to reflect our purposes?
• “willful act where one person attempts to construct the social world for others” (Greenfield, 1986). In this respect, leaders try to commit others to values they themselves believe are good. • “ability of a person to motivate others to do the work that he/she wants them to do” (Marx et al (1992)
Activity 1: 3 minutes
|Guided by the three definitions of leadership above, give your own definition of school leadership. |
Organizations are built on the unification of people around values. Leadership should help in creating meaning at a personal level to help people try to make sense of their work.
4.0Theories of Leadership
Theories have been formulated to help understand the...