Leadership

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What Is Leadership?
Leadership The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals.

Management
Use of authority inherent in designated formal rank to obtain compliance from organizational members.

11–0

Trait Theories
Traits Theories of Leadership

Leadership Traits: • Ambition and energy • The desire to lead • Honest and integrity

Theories that consider personality, social, physical, or intellectual traits to differentiate leaders from nonleaders.

• Self-confidence
• Intelligence • High self-monitoring • Job-relevant knowledge

Trait Theories Limitations:
• No universal traits found that predict leadership in all situations. • Traits predict behavior better in “weak” than “strong” situations. • Unclear evidence of the cause and effect of relationship of leadership and traits.

• Better predictor of the appearance of leadership than distinguishing effective and ineffective leaders.

Behavioral Theories
Behavioral Theories of Leadership Theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from nonleaders.

• Trait theory: Leaders are born, not made. • Behavioral theory: Leadership traits can be taught.

Ohio State Studies
Initiating Structure

The extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of subordinates in the search for goal attainment. Consideration The extent to which a leader is likely to have job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for subordinate’s ideas, and regard for their feelings.

University of Michigan Studies
Employee-Oriented Leader
Emphasizing interpersonal relations; taking a personal interest in the needs of employees and accepting individual differences among members. Production-Oriented Leader One who emphasizes technical or task aspects of the job.

The Managerial Grid
(Blake and Mouton)

Scandinavian Studies
Development-Oriented Leader One who values experimentation, seeking new ideas, and generating and...
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