IAAP 2009 Administrative Professionals Week Event April 28, 2009
Development of Leadership Theory Development of Leadership Theory • Until approximately 1930, there was not much academic interest in the area of leadership academic interest in the area of leadership • Fredrick Taylor –Scientific Management (time/motion Fredrick Taylor Scientific Management (time/motion studies of productivity) (late 1800’s) • Max Weber –(writing on bureaucracy) a leader possessed power by virtue of his position (1922) • Mary Parker Follett – participatory management in power with as opposed to power over (1926) “power with” as opposed to “power over” (1926)
Luther Gulick Notes on Organization ‐‐ 1937
• Work of the Executive Work of the Executive • POSDCORB – Planning – Organizing – Staffing – Directing – Coordinating g – Reporting – Budgeting g g
Leadership a new definition Leadership – a new definition • Chester Barnard – 1938 new definition of leadership The ability of a superior to influence the behavior of subordinates and persuade them to follow a particular course of action. (Barnard 1938)
Power French and Raven (1960) Power – French and Raven (1960) • Legitimate power – comes solely from the position the g p y p superior holds in an organization • Reward power – comes by means of promotion, salary increases and interesting assignments i di t ti i t • Expert power – comes from the leader possessing superior knowledge of the matter under discussion superior knowledge of the matter under discussion • Referent power – comes from the fact that subordinates identify with the leader and respect him/her / • Coercive power – comes from forced actions and potential for punishment potential for punishment
Nature of Leadership Nature of Leadership
Effective leadership is a key factor in the life and success of an organization Leadership transforms potential into reality. Leadership transforms potential into reality Leadership is the ultimate act which brings to success all p g of the potent potential that is in an organization and its people. Leaders propose new paradigms when old ones lose their effectiveness.
Leadership is a major way in which people change the minds of others and move minds of others and move organizations forward to accomplish identified goals.
Theories of Leadership Theories of Leadership
Over time, a number of theories of leadership have , p been proposed, including: • Great Man Theory • Trait Theory • B h i l Th i Behavioral Theories – The Managerial Grid – Theory X and Theory Y Theory X and Theory Y
• Participative Leadership
– Lewin’s leadership styles
Theories of Leadership (con t) Theories of Leadership (con't) • Situational Leadership Situational Leadership • C i Contingency Theory h • Transactional Leadership • Transformational Leadership
Theories of Leadership: Trait Theories of Leadership: Trait • Trait Theory/Great Man (Woman) – assumes the a t eo y/G eat a ( o a ) assu es t e leader is different from the average person in terms of personality traits such as intelligence, perseverance, and ambition d b • Assumptions – People are born with inherited traits. –S Some traits are particularly suited to leadership. t it ti l l it d t l d hi – People who make good leaders have the right (or sufficient) combination of traits. sufficient) combination of traits.
Trait Theory Trait Theory
• Early research on leadership was based on the y p psychological focus of the day, which was of people having inherited characteristics or traits. • Attention was given to discovering these traits, often by studying successful leaders. often by studying successful leaders. • Underlying assumption that if other people could y g p p p also be found with these traits, then they, too, could also become great leaders.
Stodgill s (1974) Traits and Skills Stodgill's (1974) Traits and Skills Traits •Adaptable to situations ...