Lava caves (or Lava tubes) are created when lava, emitted from the vent area, spreads in the path of least resistance. The outer layers of the lava harden, while the interior forms horizontal conduits that channel the advance of the flow. I was able to stoop through these conduits in amazement. CINDER/SCORIA CONES
Cinder cones are simple volcanoes which have a bowl-shaped crater at the summit and rarely rise more than a thousand feet above their surroundings. They usually are created of eruptions from a single vent, and are composed solely of lava remnants. Cinders of lava, blown into the air during eruptions, break into small fragments that fall into a pile around the vent. The pile forms an oval-shaped small volcano, as shown in this picture. During each eruption, hot molten lava was ejected into the air from a vent. It cooled, solidified, and fell back to earth as ash, cinders, popcorn-sized particles (“scoria”), and larger “bombs” as much as three feet in diameter. The larger, heavier material accumulated around the vent to build a cone-shaped volcano with a crater depression in the centre. These ejected materials will settle in an area close to the crater and will start piling up until the cone is formed. Cinder cones form when lava flows from a vent, or hole, in the Earth's surface, forming ash that builds up to form the volcano
Cinder cone volcanoes grow from a single vent in the Earth’s crust. Gas-charged lava is blown violently out of the volcano’s central vent, and the ash and rocks rain down around the vent. After multiple eruptions, the volcano takes on the familiar cone shape, with the erupted rubble forming the steep slopes. Cinder cones rarely grow much taller than 300 meters above their surroundings, and they’re common in western North America, and wherever there’s volcanic activity.
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