Sub Atomic Particles and the New Large Hadron Collider
Many non-scientists still believe that the atom is the smallest element in this world. Also most scientists use to believe that. However, since the 1960’s, scientists discovered that the theory is not true. They succeeded at finding that there is smaller particles than the atom using early colliders. Scientist used to use older and smaller machines to find smaller particles than the atom, and most of the older colliders are still in use. Currently, they completed the newest and largest high-tech machine which is called “the Large Hadron Collider” This collider is known as “LHC” among the scientists.
CERN, “European Organization for Nuclear Research”, is a scientific institution and began its existence in 1954. Their main purpose is to explore the basic laws of physics by using super colliders, thus they began to plan completing LHC from 1990 to discover what unknown particles would be generated when the particle beams collided and finally how more specifically our universe was created. The LHC is located near Geneva, on the border between France and Switzerland below 100m from the surface. It is shaped as a long ring tunnel, and its circumference is almost 27km. The LHC would be able to accelerate protons near the speed of light and will be used for many experiments. It will work by generating two high powered protons beams which are shot 27 kilometers inside a metal pipe. The reason that the beams can travel in a circle is because they are curved by many strong magnets. These magnets are 100,000 times stronger than the Earth’s magnetic field. When these protons collide with each other, they break into smaller particles called quarks and gluons, and the phenomenon would be created at that time are similar to the Big Bang. They tried first experiment in 2008; however, the machine broke down for some reason. Then they succeed recording first collision in 2009 three days after that the machine was...
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