2. Migration in India: Statistical Framework and Regional Disparities 2.1 Inter – state migration flows 1991-2002
2.2 Inter-state migration: socio-economic determinants
3. Who Migrates?
3.1 Female Migration
3.2 Segmentation of labour markets by ethnic group
3.3 Age Profile of Migrants
3.4 Do the poorest migrate?
4. Causes of Migration
4.1 Push Factors
4.2 Pull Factors
4.3 The Urban Informal Sector
4.4 Do the poorest migrate?
4 Impact of Migration
5.5 Effects of outmigration on local labour availability 5.6 The impacts on family structure
5.7 Migration as a livelihood strategy
5.8 Remittance flows
5.9 Migration as a driver of economic growth and poverty reduction 5.10 Investment by migrants and returnees in sending areas 5.11 Migration and inequality
5 Conclusion and Policy Implications for Migration
6 Literature Review
The "United Nations Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families” defines migrant worker as follows: ‘The term "migrant worker" refers to a person who is engaged or has been engaged in a remunerated activity in a State of which he or she is not a national.’ Migration from one area to another in search of improved livelihood is a key feature of human history. While some regions and sectors fall behind in their capacity to support populations, others move ahead and people migrate to access these emerging opportunities. Industrialization widens the gap between rural and urban areas, including a shift of the workforce towards industrializing areas. Migration has become a universal phenomenon in modern times. Due to the expansion of transport and communication, it has become a part of worldwide process of urbanization and industrialization. In most countries, it has been observed that industrialization and economic development has been accompanied by large-scale movements of people from villages to towns, from towns to other towns and from one country to another country. From the demographic point of view, migration is one of the three basic components of population growth of any area, the other being fertility and mortality. But whereas both fertility and mortality operate within the biological framework, migration does not. It influences size, composition and distribution of population. More importantly, migration influences the social, political and economic life of the people. Poverty and physical mobility have always been interrelated. While international migration has received more attention in recent debates on migration, internal migration is far more significant in terms of the numbers of people involved and perhaps even the quantum of remittances and poverty reduction potential of these. While it is no panacea for the poor, migration can bring many benefits and this is being recognized in some policy and research circles. Based on secondary data from Bangladesh, China, Viet Nam and the Philippines, Anh (2003) concludes that migration is a driver of growth and an important route out of poverty with significant positive impacts on people’s livelihoods and well-being. Anh argues that attempts to control mobility will be counterproductive. Afsar (2003) also argues that migration has reduced poverty directly and indirectly in Bangladesh as remittances have expanded the area under cultivation and rural labour markets by making land available for tenancy. Ping (2003) draws attention to the huge contribution of migrant labour to overall development in China and says “without migrants there would be no Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou or Shenzhen”. The potential of migration is also attracting attention in Latin America: Andersson (2002) argues that rural-urban migration can bring many benefits to Bolivia where the low population density, poverty and mountainous...