January 30, 2012
1. Title: Laboratory Techniques and Measurements
2. Purpose: The purpose of this lab is to learn laboratory techniques and to how to measure precisely. During this lab I will learn how to measure length, temperatures, volume, density, and mass using laboratory equipment. I will be using laboratory equipment to prepare dilutions and calculate them while using an algebraic formula.
3. Procedure: In order to perform this lab I needed the following materials: a metric ruler, table salt, small number of ice cubes, piece of string, flame source, rubbing alcohol, tap water, distilled water, paper, colored liquid drink, 100mL glass beaker, burner-fuel, burner-stand, 25 mL cylinder, 25mL volumetric flask, 2mL pipet, rubber bulb, goggles, 500g digital scale, test tube measuring 13x100mm, thermometer, small bolt, magnet bar, and an empty short stem pipet. To start off this lab assignment I measured the length of three objects in centimeters and millimeters with a metric ruler. I measured a knife, lighter, and a standard pack of UNO cards. I recorded the data. Next, I measured the temperature of hot water, boiling water, and boiling water after 5 minutes in Celsius. Then I proceeded to measure the temperature of cold water, ice water, and ice water after 5 minutes. I recorded this data. For this I used my 100mL beaker and hot water. I then used the wire gauze burner stand and the fuel burner in order to bring the water to boil. I measure the temperatures with my thermometer. I then let the beaker cool and measure cold water from the tap and then added ice cubes to the water in order to measure ice water’s temperature with the thermometer. Next, I measure the volume of a test tube by filling the test tube with water and pouring the water into my 25mL graduated cylinder. I recorded this volume. I then filled the pipet with one mL of water and counted how many drops were inside the pipet. I recorded this data. After doing so I determined the volume of the small pipet by filling it with water and then pouring it in the graduated cylinder. I recorded this data as well. I then proceeded to estimate the mass of 7 objects and then weigh the objects on my digital scale and record the actual mass of the objects. I measured an Oreo, a light, a pack of UNO cards, a sharpie, a name tag, a can of tuna, and a 24 pack of crayons. I then recorded the data. Following these measurements I then went on the find the density of water, rubbing alcohol, and a saturated salt solution. I found the mass of the graduated cylinder and the mass of the graduated cylinder with the substance and subtracted the two in order to find the mass of the substance. I then used the mass of the substance and divided it by the volume of the substance to determine the density. I recorded the data. I then found the densities of irregular objects by using the water displacement method, Archimedes method, and math calculation method. Completing my lab I observed the dilution of an aqueous solution. I used a colored drink and diluted it with water, slowly. I recorded my results and concluded my lab.
Data Table 1 – Length measurements Object| Length (cm)| Length (mm)|
Knife| 22.3 cm| 22.3 cm|
Lighter| 8 cm| 80 cm|
Pack of Uno Cards| 11.5 cm| 115 cm|
Data Table 2 – Temperature measurements Hot water from tap(ºC )| Boiling water(ºC)| Boiling water – 5 minutes(ºC)| 43| 100| 70|
Cold water from tap(ºC)| Ice water (ºC)| Ice water – 5 minutes (ºC)| 17| 2| 5|
Data Table 3 – Volume measurements Test tube volume (mL)| Number of drops in 1 mL| Pipet volume (mL)| 9 mL| 25 drops| 4 mL|
Data Table 4 – Mass measurements Object| Estimated Mass (g)| Actual Mass (g)|
Oreo| 4 g| 14.9g|
Lighter| 12g| 17.2g|
Uno Cards| 60g| 167.4g...