Knowledge Management and the Limits of Knowledge Codification

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Introduction
Knowledge is an important element in every individuals’ lives but most importantly to businesses to succeed in today’s economy.  The successfulness of knowledge is through many strategies that involve knowledge creation, knowledge transfer and knowledge management and also by using advanced IT systems through the economic growth and change (Anantatmula and Kanungo, 2010). The purpose of this report is to evaluate how successful the KM strategies are in place within Apple and to evaluate how good practices are shared. Also, the report will show how knowledge management tools are applied to achieve good practices supported by current models, theories, principles and practical examples. Apple is a technological based organisation that creates computers, software and many other Apple branded products. It is well-known globally with over 300 stores around the world (Apple Inc., 2011). The products innovated by Apple have strong positioning within the market as they are differentiated from other organisations (Mintel, 2011). Apple creates a customer based profile by collecting information about customers and their preferences. Customers register their details on Apples website when initial products and or services are purchased like iCloud, MobileMe and iTunes, as well as many other products and services. This detailed information is then aggregated and stored explicitly on database(s), used to help them provide more useful information to their customers so they can meet their needs, and to understand which parts of their products, and services are of most interest.

How Apple uses human process and technology in Knowledge Management? Knowledge Management shows how the human process can be used in the means of managing transfer of information which is known as tacit or explicit knowledge transfer. This is also developed in the process through learning, growth and innovation, which are influenced by key principles, tools and processes (Knowledge-Management-Online, 2009). All parts of the human process are of great importance, however, a crucial element is knowledge creation. This determines the original ideas that Apple produces. Innovation and solutions are highly expected from everyone that is involved with Apple. Apple states that innovations take place in many forms and that there are new innovations created, found and developed every day (Apple Inc., 2011). The process of organisational learning (Yang, et al. 2004) and memory (Walsh and Ungson, 1991. Cited in Akgün et al., 2011) together with growth and innovation is highly presented by Apple. Through the change of innovative time, Apple has transferred knowledge in the company through the uses of training and also advanced technology, which is the most modern technique of knowledge transfer. In the advanced technique of communication and knowledge management, technology is a process that is required by many organisations to share and apply the best knowledge. Also, it creates and is able to distribute a vast amount of knowledge at any time through the organisation, especially to key stakeholders of the organisation (Knowledge-Management-Online, 2009). The use of technology that allows better communication and knowledge transfer to occur are through the use of the web; internet, intranet and videoconferencing. The advanced usage of technology can also be illustrated through team meetings, conferences and board meetings. Apples’ products are developing rapidly over time to continuously amaze their customers and to successfully achieve their customers’ needs, through the form of communication, where knowledge is shared and exchanged. The use of technology i.e. the internet have a range of sites relating to the most popular ideas that customers want to see next or what improvements can be made to current products (Apple Inc., 2011).

How Apple illustrates KM theories of Knowledge transfer and knowledge exchange? Most corporations are...
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