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  • July 2013
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Abstract:
Saponification is an esterification process that is used to make so from the hydrolysis of fats and oils. This process have the glycerol molecule, and a sodium carboxylate salt in most case sodium stearate being formed, however this salt depends on the base being used. In the experiment 23ml of vegetable oil was mixed with 20ml of ethyl alcohol along with 20 ml of 25% sodium hydroxide in a 250-mL Erlenmeyer flask. The content was then heated on a water bath whilst gently mixing with a glass rod. After 20 minutes of heating the alcohol scent disappeared denoting the completion of the reaction with pasty mass comprising of soap, glycerol and excess sodium hydroxide. After this was done an ice bath was used to precipitate the soap along with 150ml of saturated sodium chloride solution, and vigorous mixing. By this the soap will float as the aqueous solution gets denser; this was then filtered using the vacuum suction, washed with 10ml ice water and the necessary observation taken. Saponification is a commercial process used to generate detergent by hydrolyzing fats and oils using sodium or potassium hydroxide in an esterification reaction. This process usually involved the production of glycerol and excess sodium hydroxide solutions as the byproducts. This product and procedure have proved to be an economical one and can be applied as it is easily attained.

Procedure:
23 mL of a vegetable oil was measured into a 250-mL Erlenmeyer flask. After which 20 mL of ethyl alcohol was added (to act as a solvent) along with 20 mL of 25% sodium hydroxide solution (25% NaOH). Whilst the flask with its contents is heated gently in a boiling water bath the mixture was constantly mixed using a glass rod. A 600-mL beaker containing about 200 mL of tap water and a few boiling chips was uses as a water bath. After being heated for about 20 minutes and the reaction came to completion the scent of the ethyl alcohol disappeared;...

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