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US I AP Chapter 1 Study Guide
The fall of Rome and the Dark Ages
The Dark Ages:
* Dark Ages: the time period in Western Civilization that began after the fall of Rome to the Goths in 476 CE * Life during the Dark Ages
* Violent
* City life withered
* Sewage systems stopped working
* People lived in shacks and struggled to get food
* Literacy is almost 0%
* Bubonic Plague appears
People and the Roman Catholic Church:
* The only saving grace during this time was the Roman Catholic church * Preached that those who are worst off on earth will be rewarded in the afterlife * The church had a lot of power and influence in this time * The pope wielded influence not only as a spiritual leader, but a political leader as well * The church owned a lot of land

* People began to notice the pope abusing his power
The End of the Dark Ages:
* The Dark Ages ended and an era of new learning and new life begins * Reasons for the end of the Dark Ages:
* Stronger leaders
* Ability to ward off the barbarian attacks
* Greater wealth
* Warmer weather

The Renaissance
Definition: “Rebirth”: 1350-1600. Began in Italy, funded by the Florence family

What was it?: When the prosperous and educated urban class promoted learning and artistic expression. Wealthy townspeople joined princes in becoming patrons of the arts, offering financial support to painters, sculptors, architects, writers, and musicians.

Significance: Because most Europeans were peasants it did not affect the daily lives of many.

Reformation- Why did it start? What was its significance?:
* Reformation: Martin Luther’s ideas spread widely, inspiring a challenge to be known as the Reformation. The people questioned the church’s power and demands and started to believe that one can gain salvation through true faith. Martin Luther: 1517- a German monk who invited open debate on a set of propositions critical of church practices and doctrine. He believed that the church had become too insistent on good works such as charitable donations. He started the Reformation.

Native American groups – Know the most common Native American groups found in the Americas * Taino Indians: Found in the Bahamas in 1492 by Columbus. * Carib Indians: Also found in the Bahamas in 1492 by Columbus. * Aztecs: Found on the coast of Mexico by Cortés in 1519. * Inca Indians: Found by Francisco Pizarro in 1532. It was the largest empire in the Americas. * Apalachee Indians: Found in Florida in 1528 by Cabeza de Vaca.

Crusades and their effects on exploration: The churches in Europe were corrupt and led the people to flee the European countries in hopes of religious freedom. Other reasons for exploration:
* Religious persecution and turmoil
* Strong political leaders
* Primogeniture laws
* Improved technology (caravel, astrolabe, maps)
* Spices
* Curiosity

Portuguese advancements in sailing:
* The perfected caravel (narrow shape and steering rudder suited it for ocean travel) * The magnetic compass (first originated in China)
* The astrolabe (allowed mariners to determine their position in relation to a star’s known location in the sky)

Africa and European interaction before and after Portuguese navigational improvements: * Spain and Portugal fought over the control of the Canary Islands (Spain wins) * Portugal acquires Madeira and the Cape Verde Islands

* Main reason for going to Africa was for the slave trade and using these slaves on large plantations * A popular one was a sugar plantation

Slave trade:
* Transatlantic Slave Trade: Europeans captured Africans and sold, traded, or used them * Spanish often brought in African slaves and purchased them from Portuguese traders * Europeans imported African slaves from the start

Plantation system: When there was no gold left, the Indians were taken as slaves...
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