Just in Time

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Q1. Explain in brief the origins of Just In Time. Explain the different types of wastes that can be eliminated using JIT Ans. Just in Time (JIT) is a management philosophy aimed at eliminating waste and continuously improving quality. Credit for developing JIT as a management strategy goes to Toyota. Toyota JIT manufacturing started in the aftermath of World War II. Although the history of JIT traces back to Henry Ford who applied Just in Time principles to manage inventory in the Ford Automobile Company during the early part of the 20th Century, the origins of the JIT as a management strategy traces to Taiichi Onho of the Toyota Manufacturing Company. He developed Just in Time strategy as a means of competitive advantage during the post World War II period in Japan. The post-World War II Japanese automobile industry faced a crisis of existence, and companies such as Toyota looked to benchmark their thriving American counterparts. The productivity of an American car worker was nine times that of a Japanese car worker at that time, and Taiichi Onho sought ways to reach such levels. Two pressing challenges however prevented Toyota from adopting the American way: 1. American car manufacturers made “lots” or a “batch” of a model or a component before switching over to a new model or component. This system was not suited to the Japanese conditions where a small market required manufacturing in small quantities. 2. The car pricing policy of US manufacturers was to charge a mark-up on the cost price. The low demand in Japan led to price resistance. The need of the hour was thus to reduce manufacturing costs to increase profits. To overcome these two challenges, Taiichi Onho identified waste as the primary evil. The categories of waste identified included * overproduction

* inventory or waste associated with keeping dead stock
* time spent by workers waiting for materials to appear in the assembly line * time spend on transportation or movement
*...
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