Describe the processes required for the information to be put onto LIMS and results to be sent. The exponentially growing volumes of data created in laboratories, coupled with increased business demands have pushed LIMS vendors to increase attention to how their LIMS handles electronic data exchanges. Attention must be paid to how an instrument's input and output data is managed, how remote sample collection data is imported and exported, and how mobile technology integrates with the LIMS. The successful transfer of data files in Microsoft Excel and other formats, as well as the import and export of data to Oracle, SQL, and Microsoft Access databases is a pivotal aspect of a the modern LIMS. In fact, the transition "from proprietary databases to standardized database management systems such as Oracle ... and SQL" has arguably had one of the biggest impacts on how data is managed and exchanged in laboratories. Steps on how information is received and sent back out to the clients… 1. Data acquisition
All analytical data collected from automated instruments is sent to LIMS electronically, not entered by hand. This avoids the inevitable transcription errors that can result from hand entering large amounts of data. This includes all organics, metals and even certain general chemistry tests. The only data entered by hand are tests that are completely manual and do not lend themselves to this type of automation. 2. Data processing/data approval
All data (regardless of how they enter the system) follow a tightly controlled “assembly line” of calculations, automated checks and approval steps. Both analyst and supervisor must review the data. Note that the system is not designed to replace the chemist; it simply does all it can to make their job simpler and more streamlined, ensuring a more detailed review process. 3. QC data processing
All applicable quality control data (spikes, duplicates, blanks, etc.) are entered and processed exactly...