This week’s lecture is subdivided into two parts job evaluation and pay structures. Job evaluation is a process in which the value of the job in an organisation is analysed and employees are placed in appropriate grades. Job evaluation is retained and modified by many organisations in order to ensure equity & equal values among the employees, evaluate benchmarks jobs, make market comparison and define band boundaries and allocate roles. Moreover to analyse and identify the hierarchy of jobs, job evaluation process is compulsory. Job evaluation process is a lengthy and has to be taken place in a systematic manner. It is mainly obtaining information about the employees through Job description which includes purpose of the job, qualification & experiences required, main task & accountability etc., Questionnaires are use to measure the differences and similarities between positions within the organisation, Discussions is held with HR experts and experienced employees. Analysis and evaluation takes place using job evaluation manual and software packages. Furthermore methods such as analytical and non-analytical are use in job evaluation depending on the various needs of the organisations, analytical method is where the jobs are broken into their component parts which are awarded points and non analytical method is where whole jobs are compared. There are various advantages and disadvantages for job evaluation: * Underpins pay structures
* Objective and logical
* Job grades and useful for job moves etc.
* It is fair , it eliminates any managerial bias
* It is viewed favourably by industrial tribunals
* Job description creates rigidity
* Less suited to ‘knowledge workers’
* Subjective of evaluation
* Bureaucratic and costly
Pay structures are the different levels of pay for jobs, or groups of jobs, by reference to: Their relative internal value as established by job evaluation, external relativities via market rate surveys, where appropriate negotiated rates for the job. There most important type of pay structures is:
* Graded pay: Spot rate – This kind of pay structure is mainly used in small start up organisations, manger influences the decision in deciding the pay and pay progression is only accepted by negotiation. Rate for the job – Applied in manual jobs eg : 50 Dhs per hour, pay can be negotiated with a union. Graded pay are easy to explain, encourages frequent promotions
Discrimination refers, to treat one particular group of people less favourably than others because of their race, colour, nationality, or ethnic or national origin. There are four types of discrimination, as they are different from each other: * Direct discrimination – This discrimination occurs when a person’s characteristics such as colour, nationality, race, ethnic or national origin is used as a reason for discrimination. This type of discrimination is directly showed to a person Eg: A person from Africa working in America as a bar tender is frequently discriminated by the customers on the colour and is not treated equally.
* Indirect discrimination- This occurs when a requirement or condition is applied equally to all, which has a unbalanced effect on one sex or racial group because fewer of that group can follow with it and the requirements cannot be justified in relation to the task to be performed. Eg: For example staff uniform dress code for woman in an organisation may be skirt which an Asian woman worker might refuse for religious reasons.
* Harassment – This is referred as an inappropriate action, behaviour, comments or physical contact which is offensive or objectionable to the person. It may be of racial or sexual nature or it may be directed towards people because of their age, their sexuality, a disability or some other characteristic.
* Victimization - relates to further victimisation following on from the original...