• A process of achieving organizational goals by engaging in the function of planning, organizing, leading and controlling.
• A set of activities directed at the efficient and effective utilization of resources in pursuit of one or more objectives, Kibera (1996).
• The art of getting things done through and with people in formally organized groups.
• The art of creating an environment in which employees perform as individuals and cooperate towards the achievement of group, team and or organizational goals.
• The art of getting things done through other people, (Mary Parker Follet)
• A process of achieving results through the efficient utilization of human and material resources.
• The creation and maintenance of an internal environment in an enterprise where individuals working together in groups perform efficiently and effectively towards the attainment of group goals. (H. Koontz and O’Donnell).
• The process of getting things done through the efforts of other people. Moody et al).
• A process of achieving an organization’s goals through coordinated performance of five specific functions of Planning, Organizing, Directing, Staffing and Controlling. (David Schwartz).
• A process of coordinating and integrating human, technical and other resources to accomplish specific results.
• A process of getting things done through and with people, by directing and motivating the efforts of individuals towards common objectives.
A manager is a person responsible for directing the efforts of others aimed at helping the organization achieve its goals.
Managerial performance is the measure of how efficient and effective a manager is. It is how well or best one determines and achieves appropriate objectives.
Organizational performance is the measure of how efficient and effective an organization is. How well or best it achieves its predetermined and appropriate objectives.
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