Introduction to Principles of Management

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Management is:
A process of achieving organizational goals by engaging in the function of planning, organizing, leading and controlling. •A set of activities directed at the efficient and effective utilization of resources in pursuit of one or more objectives, Kibera (1996). •The art of getting things done through and with people in formally organized groups. •The art of creating an environment in which employees perform as individuals and cooperate towards the achievement of group, team and or organizational goals. •The art of getting things done through other people, (Mary Parker Follet) •A process of achieving results through the efficient utilization of human and material resources. •The creation and maintenance of an internal environment in an enterprise where individuals working together in groups perform efficiently and effectively towards the attainment of group goals. (H. Koontz and O’Donnell). •The process of getting things done through the efforts of other people. Moody et al). •A process of achieving an organization’s goals through coordinated performance of five specific functions of Planning, Organizing, Directing, Staffing and Controlling. (David Schwartz). •A process of coordinating and integrating human, technical and other resources to accomplish specific results. •A process of getting things done through and with people, by directing and motivating the efforts of individuals towards common objectives.

A manager is a person responsible for directing the efforts of others aimed at helping the organization achieve its goals. Managerial performance is the measure of how efficient and effective a manager is. It is how well or best one determines and achieves appropriate objectives. Organizational performance is the measure of how efficient and effective an organization is. How well or best it achieves its predetermined and appropriate objectives. MANAGEMENT FUNCTION

Management is referred to as a process because it is a systematic way of doing things. Like any other process, all managers engage in certain interrelated activities in order to achieve their desired goals. Four of the key management functions are:- a)Planning - the process of setting goals and deciding how best to achieve them. b)Organizing - Involves allocating and arranging human and non human resources for the successful implementation of plans

c)Directing or Leading - the process of influencing others to engage in work behavior necessary to reach the organization goals.
d)Controlling - Involves regulating organizational activities so that actual performance conform to expected standards and goals.


1.Organizations contribute to the present standards of living of people worldwide. People rely on organizations for food, shelter, clothing, medical care, employment and all other factors that lead to the satisfaction of all the human needs and wants. 2.Organizations build towards a desirable future and help individuals do the same. New products and practices are developed as a result of people working together in organizations. 3.Organizations help connect people to the past. Everyday that people work with others adds to the history of the organization and to human history. Organizations build on their past experiences and individuals value their experiences with organizations. 4.All organizations formal and informal have plans and goals. How well organizations achieve their goals depends on managerial performance, hence the need to study management.


Henry Mintzberg groups managerial roles into three broad categories:

a) Interpersonal Roles
1.Leader- Builds good working relationship with staff under him, communicates organization goals to them, motivates and coaches them. Performs formal, representational and symbolic duties. 2.Figurehead- Performs major duties which other...
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