Interpreting and Translation

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Summary of Interpreting 1
The Similarity and Differences between Translation and Interpreting 1. Similarity
• Both transferring the message from Source Language (SL) into Target Language (TL) • Both retaining the message
• Both restructuring or reproducing
• Both having SLT and TLT
• Both having the target audience
2. Differences
|Translation |Interpreting | |The medium is in written form |The medium is in oral form | |In reproducing the translation in the receptor language: |In reproducing the translation in the receptor language: | |not on the spot |on the spot | |can use dictionaries or thesaurus |direct translation (being able to translate in both directions, | |have more time to check and recheck the translation |without the use of any dictionaries) | | |have no time to check and recheck the translation) | |The doer : translator |The doer : Interpreter |

The Theory
Interpreting consists of presenting in the Receptor Language, the exact message of what is uttered in the Source Language either simultaneously or consecutively preserving the tone of the speaker, such as formal and informal expressions, emotions, feelings, the choice of words, high and low pitch or tone in uttering words, etc.

The Process of Interpreting
There are 4 elements involve in the process of interpreting: • the speaker
• the audience
• the message
• the interpreter

The Process:
(in TL)
(in SL)

(1) (2)(3) (4)

(1) Listening and understanding a spoken message of the Source Language ( (2) Storing/note-taking the message ( (3) Retrieving the message ( (4) Reproducing the message of the source language into the receptor language.

Modes of Interpreting
1. Simultaneous Interpreting
In simultaneous interpreting, the speaker and the interpreter speak almost at the same time. 2. Consecutive Interpreting
In consecutive interpreting, the speaker speaks first, then after he/she finish his/her complete segment/speech, the interpreter takes the turn. Generally, during consecutive interpreting the speaker stops every 3-5 minutes (usually at the end of every "paragraph" or a complete thought) and the interpreter then steps in to transfer what was said into the receptor language.

Model of Communication Flow in Consecutive Interpreting



: indirect communication
: direct communication
Qualifications of a Good Interpreter
• An interpreter has to have knowledge of the general subject of the speeches that are to be interpreted. • An interpreter has to have general erudition and intimate familiarity with both cultures. For example: when a speaker talks about American agriculture, then the interpreter has to know about American agriculture. • An interpreter has to have extensive vocabulary in both languages (SL and RL). • An interpreter has to have the ability to express thoughts clearly (easily to understand) and concisely (in brief) in both languages. • An interpreter has to have an excellent note taking technique for consecutive interpreting. • An interpreter at least 2-3 years of booth experience for simultaneous interpreting. In addition, in note taking of a paragraph uttered by a speaker, an interpreter has to be able to grab the main idea/topic of that paragraph. Therefore,...
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