1. Application Layer: Applications let people do something useful with the network. They can be very simple diagnostic programs such as "ping" or "traceroute". Or they can be more complex and sophisticated programs such as "telnet" or "ftp".
1 Socket Layer: The socket layer provides an application with a programming interface to the network that looks like a file. When an application writes to the socket, the socket layer sends data to an application on a remote host. When an application reads from a socket, the socket layer provides data received from a remote host.
2 Routing Layer: The routing layer is where the decision is made to receive, forward, or discard a packet. This decision is based on the destination IP address.
3 Link Layer: The link layer provides a mechanism for sending an IP packet over a particular network or media. Examples of such networks include point-to-point links, frame relay, regular analog telephone (POTS), ISDN, Ethernet and Token Ring.
4 Device Driver: The device driver layer refers to the software that manages the network interface hardware and sends and receives packets. Device drivers often have strict performance requirements and limited development tools available. Since they are accessing real hardware, they have the potential to cause a system failure.
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