AFTA (ASEAN Free Trade Area)
ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) is a trade bloc agreement by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations supporting local manufacturing in all ASEAN countries. The ASEAN Heads of State and Government decided to establish an ASEAN Free Trade Area or AFTA in 1992. The objective of AFTA is to increase the ASEAN region’s competitive advantage as a production base geared for the world market. A vital step in this direction is the liberalization of trade through the elimination of tariffs and non-tariff barriers among the ASEAN members. This activity has begun to serve as a catalyst for greater efficiency in production and long-term competitiveness. Moreover, the expansion of intra-regional trade is giving the ASEAN consumers wider choice and better quality consumer products. The agreement was signed on 28 January 1992 in Singapore. When the AFTA agreement was originally signed, ASEAN had six members, namely, Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. Vietnam joined in 1995, Laos and Myanmar in 1997 and Cambodia in 1999. AFTA now comprises ten countries of ASEAN. All the four latecomers were required to sign the AFTA agreement in order to join ASEAN, but were given longer time frames in which to meet AFTA's tariff reduction obligations. The primary goals of AFTA seek to:
Increase ASEAN's competitive edge as a production base in the world market through the elimination, within ASEAN, of tariffs and non-tariff barriers; and
Attract more foreign direct investment to ASEAN.
To establish free trade area in the member countries.
To reduce tariff of the products produced in ASEAN countries The primary mechanism for achieving the goals given above is the Common Effective Preferential Tariff (CEPT) scheme, which established a schedule for phased initiated in 1992 with the self-described goal to increase the "region’s competitive advantage as a production base geared for the world market". Member Countries are working towards the total elimination of import duties on all products to achieve the ultimate objective of a free trade area. The AFTA Council has agreed that the target dates to achieve this objective will be in 2015 for the six original ASEAN Member Countries and 2018 for the newer Members. This move is expected to create an integrated market where there is free flow of goods within the region. Total elimination of import duties shall achieve a maximum impact in enhancing the ASEAN region’s economic competitiveness vis-à-vis the rest of the world.
EU (European Union)
The European Union (EU) is an economic and political union or confederation of 27 member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community(ECSC) and the European Economic Community (EEC), formed by six countries in 1958. In the intervening years the EU has grown in size by the accession of new member states, and in power by the addition of policy areas to its remit. The Maastricht Treaty established the European Union under its current name in 1993. The latest amendment to the constitutional basis of the EU, the Treaty of Lisbon, came into force in 2009. The EU operates through a system of supranational independent institutions and intergovernmental negotiated decisions by the member states. Important institutions of the EU include the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, the Court of Justice of the European Union, and the European Central Bank. TheEuropean Parliament is elected every five years by EU citizens. The EU has developed a single market through a standardised system of laws which apply in all member states. Within the Schengen Area (which includes EU and non-EU states) passport controls have been abolished. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital, enact legislation in justice and home affairs, and maintain common policies on...
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