International Law Report

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MIM M1 2012-2013

Internatıonal Law
Questıon 2 a and b

Mathılde LIOT  12/ 10/12 Content

I. What is GATT ………………………………………….page 3

II. What is World Trade Organization ?............................page 3

III. What is a Genetically Modified Organism ?...............page 4

IV. Advantages and Risks from Genetical Modified Organisms ………………………………………………………………page 6

Reefernces …………………………………………………page 8

One of the most important debats of nowadays is the Genetical Modified Organisms. Indeed, governements are not agreeing about the real advantages and the risks of the GMOs. This why, the World Trade Organization, with the help of the GATT, is trying to impose laws to regulate the market of the GMOs but moreover to protect human and animal's health, environnement and plants'preservation. First of all we will explain the political context and try to list and explain the different Agreements that have being set up to insure a global health security. We will also few the general advantges and risks that are vehiculed by the Genetical Modified Organisms. Secondly we will discuss about the prohibition of the sales or importation of any GMOs on the ground of their untested nature and potential danger for health (question 2a) and about of the prohibition of the sales or importation of GMOs seeds, on the ground of the unknown and potentially harmfull environnement impact of plantings of GMOs seeds due to cross'fertilisation.

I. What is GATT ?

The General Agreement on Tarrifs and Trade is a multilateral agreement regulating international trade. Governements had the wish of creating the International Trade Organization (ITO) but they failed in negociations. The GATT has been negociated during United Nations (UN) conference on Trade and Employement and was signed 1948. But in 1995, the organization was replaced by the World Trade Organization.

II. What is World Trade Organization ?

The World Trade Organization, also known as WTO, was created on the 1st January 1995 by the Uruguay Round Négociation (1986 – 1994). The headquarters of WTO are located in Geneva (Swizterland). In 2012, this organization registered 157 countries members and owns 196 million Swiss Franc budget (2011). There are 640 persons employed and are managed by the General Director Mr. Pascal Lamy.

The WTO has several functions in order to regulated and help trades between countries. First of all, the WTO has to administrate trade agreements to insure good and fair trade relations between the members. In order to inform members about trade negociations, the organization organises forum during all the year. Moreover, the WTO has to judge and take decisions about trade disputes. The control of national trade policies are also carried by it. In order to help developing countries, the WTO provides technical assistance and training. To improve their efficiency and be aware of the lastest trades, the WTO cooperates with other international organizations.

WTO's values :

The World Trade Organization is also standing for important values that will ruled effectively trade relations for the countries and other non-governemental organizations. These values are inked into the organization's structure as well as the employees and countries members. Moreover, values are important to gather the countries around agreements and compromise for fair trades. These principles are essential to give developement opportunities to all countries aroud the world.

• Protection of the environnement :
Environnement is not only about ecology, it also concerns animal health, plant health and human health. Thanks to agreements, the members of the World Trade Organization can...
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