Intelligence: Adaptive Mind versus Psychometric Views

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Introduction to Psychology Study Guide #3
Chapter 10:
Intelligence: Adaptive Mind versus Psychometric Views
Mental Tests, Galton, Factor Analysis, g and s factors in intelligence, factor analysis Catell and Horn: Fluid and crystallized intelligence
Multiple intelligences (Gardner)
Sternburg’s triarchic theory: Analytic, Creative, and Practical Intelligence Achievement tests & aptitude tests
Validity, reliability, standardization
(Content validity, construct validity, predictive validity) Binet and Simon: intelligence quotient, mental age & chronological age Standard deviation, normal distribution (normal curve), deviation IQ Extremes in Intelligence Scores (MR and Giftedness)

Individual differences: emotional intelligence, creativity, and tacit knowledge The Flynn Effect
Environmental and genetic factors in IQ; twin studies
Test bias, stereotype threat, and the self-fulfilling prophecy

Chapter 9:
Thinking, Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis
Grammar: Phonology, Semantics, and Syntax; Phonemes and Morphemes (language hierarchy) Sentence structure (Noam Chomsky: surface structure and deep structure) Pragmatics and Pragmatic Rules
Child Speak and telegraphic speech, language development, language versus communication (is language adaptive?) Classification and Categorization: defining features v. family resemblance, prototypes v. exemplars Hierarchical organization: basic level, superordinate level, subordinate level categories Problem Solving (ill-defined v. well-defined problems) & problem solving strategies Heuristics (and examples: anchoring and adjustment, representativeness, and availability) Insight, decision making, and Framing

Confirmation Bias, Belief Persistence

Chapter 11:
Instincts, Drives, Motivation, Emotion
Homeostasis, Incentive Motivation, Achievement Motivation, Intrinsic Motivation Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (biological versus psychological needs) Eating: Important brain areas, chemicals, and...
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