Makerere University, Faculty of Computing and Information Technology, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda, East Africa firstname.lastname@example.org 2 Department of Computer Science, University of Reading, P.O. Box 225, Whiteknights, Reading, Berkshire, RG6 6AY, United Kingdom email@example.com
Abstract. When using e-learning material some students progress readily, others have difficulties. In a traditional classroom the teacher would identify those with difficulties and direct them to additional resources. This support is not easily available within e-learning. A new approach to providing constructive feedback is developed that will enable an e-learning system to identify areas of weakness and provide guidance on further study. The approach is based on the tagging of learning material with appropriate keywords that indicate the contents. Thus if a student performs poorly on an assessment on topic X, there is a need to suggest further study of X and participation in activities related to X such as forums. As well as supporting the learner this type of constructive feedback can also inform other stakeholders. For example a tutor can monitor the progress of a cohort; an instructional designer can monitor the quality of learning objects in facilitating the appropriate knowledge across many learners. Keywords: E-Learning, Tracking, Constructive Personalisation, Knowledge Construction. Feedback, LMS,
The internet has created possibilities for transferring, sharing and reusing content. The increasing adoptation of the internet use in higher education learning demonstrates its potential as a future learning medium. Educational providers are exploring the effective use of e-learning by incorporating it in their teaching. There are several factors that have influenced educational providers to incorporate Learning Management Systems (LMS) within teaching. These factors include the rapid increasing number of students, the need for learning and the need to prepare students to suit the knowledge economy . The use of LMS has created better opportunities for learners to learn ubiquitously. The LMS are capable of creating, fostering, delivering, tracking and facilitating learning more effectively. However these learning tools have not yet fully realised the potential of learning standards [2, 3, 4] and technology by supporting stakeholders with constructive real-time feedback. The lack F.L. Wang et al. (Eds.): ICHL 2009, LNCS 5685, pp. 218–229, 2009. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009
Integrating Constructive Feedback in Personalised E-Learning
of direct and immediate contact between the learner and tutor poses a threat to the quality of e-learning . The teacher in a class setting is provided with a variety of opportunities for interacting and supporting learners. One of the key roles of the teacher is to support learners with constructive feedback during learning. The learners are able to reflect and improve on their knowledge construction. The difficulty with LMS to provide constructive feedback during e-learning has encouraged researchers to devise other effective methods. The current LMS have been further developed to incorporate technologies such as reusable learning objects . These RLO enable instructional designers to configure content to suit individual learners and allow effective tracking where constructive feedback can be integrated. Reusable Learning Objects have created better opportunities in the content instruction which allows personalisation of content. Learners can request for this personalised content which is dependent on their learning styles . Learning styles are methods, through which learners perceive, interpret and processes information . Jung  asserts that learners process information in different ways which is dependent on their learning styles. The...