Instructional Psychology

Topics: Psychology, Learning, Knowledge Pages: 3 (687 words) Published: September 14, 2013
INSTRUCTIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
EST103 REVISION NOTES

1. Write an essay to demonstrate how the ideas of the following learning theories can be used in the teaching and/or in learning of your specializing subject. a) Behavioural learning theory

b) Constructive learning theory
c) Social cognitive learning theory
d) Cognitive learning theory
Learning is the process by which experiences cause permanent change in knowledge or behaviour. We learn in every day of our life. A lot of scholars and theorists have proposed several theories of learning. Of those theories, behavioural, constructive, cognitive and social cognitive theories can be extremely helpful in the learning of English language. a) Behavioural learning theory

Behaviourists define learning in terms of relationships among observable events called stimuli and response. Stimuli are events that activate behaviour, and response is the observable reactions to these events. According to this theory, learning complicated behaviour is a gradual and step-by-step process. For instance, in teaching essay writing, teacher may first check students’ prior knowledge regarding the topic and give his/her points in the form of instruction. Then, teacher can give a sample article and discuss it with the whole class, each paragraph separately. Then give a question, ask students to do it in pairs or individually. One aspect of behavioural learning theory is contiguity learning which involves simple pairing of stimuli and response. Such learning occurs through drill and practice activities. For example, present tense and past tense of a verb. Secondly, classical conditioning which associates automatic response with new stimuli can be helpful to change students towards the subject. Many students view English as a boring and complicated subject to learn. However, if they are being given interactive tasks that motivate them, they will begin to consider English as an interesting subject. Operant conditioning...
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