Industrial Revolution Review Guide

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Industrial Revolution Review Guide
Industrial Revolution
• a major change in a country’s method of producing goods and organizing labor • a movement from:
o an agricultural to an industrial society
o manual labor to use of machines
o Rural society to an urban society

Characteristics of Pre-Industrial Society
• most people lived and worked on farms
• wealthy nobles controlled the land
• agricultural methods had not changed drastically for centuries • people rarely travelled
• Inefficient methods were used to plant and harvest crops • communication between towns and cities was slow and infrequent • people supplemented their income by mining their land, working out of their homes • infant mortality high

• life expectancy short

Domestic System (Cottage Industry)
• Early industrial labor system in which people produced goods in their homes • Textiles, Coal
• Workers typically completed a step of the manufacturing process in their homes and then passed their portion onto another home for the next step (Spinner, weaver, fuller, dryer)

• Benefits
o Workers set own hours
o Women cared for their children, completed domestic duties o Children worked along side their parents
o Provided income during hard times

Industrial Revolution
o Began – England
o 1750-1900s
o Textile Industry

Why England?
1. Enclosure Movement - Wealthy landowners ended open field system to increase efficiency and productivity o New Agricultural improvements
o New inventions/discoveries
▪ Crop rotation – used turnips to enrich the soil ▪ Seed Drill (Jethro Tull) – reduced seed waste ▪ Selective Breeding (Bakewell) – used only strongest and healthiest animals for breeding

o Results
▪ Improved the quantity, quality, and profitability of food ▪ Increased lifespan and infant mortality rates ▪ Small farmers forced off of farms to towns and cities to find work

2. Good Labor Supply – large number of able workers
o Birthrates increased & death rates decreased o Many workers were skilled and educated

3. Natural resources – coal, iron ore, waterways, resources from colonies (wool, cotton)

4. Investment capital – available money
o Wealthy landowners and merchants
o Strong banking system
o Entrepreneur

5. Markets
o Colonies provided markets to sell finished goods o New jobs and wealth created a cycle of new markets (more $ made = more money to spend) o Large demand for textiles (demand exceeded supply)

6. Government support
o Laws to protect businesses
o Patent laws encourage investment
o No internal tariffs
o Political stability – long standing constitutional monarchy

7. Mobile Society – ability to move up in society
o No rigid class system
o Work ethic admired

Textiles – cloth
o Domestic system can’t meet rising demand for cotton
o New technologies invented to meet demand

Textile Industry Inventions
|Invention |Inventor |Impact | |Flying Shuttle |John Kay |Faster weaving | |Spinning Jenny |James Hargreaves |Faster Spinning | |...
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